Community gardens

Evidence Rating  
Evidence rating: Some Evidence

Strategies with this rating are likely to work, but further research is needed to confirm effects. These strategies have been tested more than once and results trend positive overall.

Disparity Rating  
Disparity rating: Potential to decrease disparities

Strategies with this rating have the potential to decrease or eliminate disparities between subgroups. Rating is suggested by evidence, expert opinion or strategy design.

Health Factors  
Date last updated
Community in Action

A community garden is any piece of land that is gardened or cultivated by a group of people to grow produce, usually for home consumption. Community gardens are typically owned by local governments, not-for-profit groups, or faith-based organizations; gardens are also often initiated by groups of individuals who clean and cultivate vacant lots. Local governments, non-profits, and communities may support gardens through community land trusts, gardening education, distribution of seedlings and other materials, zoning regulation changes, or service provision such as water supply or waste disposal1.

What could this strategy improve?

Expected Benefits

Our evidence rating is based on the likelihood of achieving these outcomes:

  • Increased access to fruits & vegetables

  • Increased fruit & vegetable consumption

  • Increased physical activity

  • Improved mental health

  • Improved well-being

  • Improved sense of community

Potential Benefits

Our evidence rating is not based on these outcomes, but these benefits may also be possible:

  • Increased food security

  • Increased healthy foods in food deserts

  • Reduced obesity rates

  • Improved neighborhood safety

  • Reduced emissions

  • Reduced run-off

What does the research say about effectiveness?

There is some evidence that community gardens improve access to and consumption of fruits and vegetables2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and increase physical activity for gardeners2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11; however, effects may be seasonal3. Community gardens can improve participants’ mental health, well-being, and social connectedness2, 4, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. Community gardens may also promote healthy eating, improve physical health, and reduce obesity3, 4, 5, 17. However, physical health improvements are inconsistent4 and vary depending on frequency and amount of time spent gardening3, 14 and may only emerge over the long term5, 14. Community gardens have the potential to improve food security6 and increase fruit and vegetable availability in food deserts18, 19, 20, 21. Additional evidence is needed to confirm effects.

Gardening is considered moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and heavy gardening is vigorous and muscle-strengthening exercise22. Community gardening can increase time spent doing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity10 and can reduce body mass index (BMIs) among participants3, 5, 17. Community gardening may encourage an overall healthy lifestyle by promoting physical fitness, strength, flexibility, and social engagement, especially among older adults11, 23. Community gardening can increase fiber intake10 and daily fruit and vegetable consumption for adults, teenagers24, and children7. Compared with non-gardeners, gardeners may be more likely to meet recommendations for daily vegetable consumption25. One survey of food insecure gardeners in rural Appalachian Ohio associates gardening with increased produce consumption, better eating habits, increased physical activity, and decreased food spending26. Community garden participants also appear to value healthy food harvests, cooking meals, and sharing their harvest with family and friends6.

Community gardens are associated with improvements in mental health, reduced stress and anxiety, reduced isolation and symptoms of depression, and increased social connectedness2, 4, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. Available evidence suggests that reductions in stress and anxiety for community garden participants are greater for participants who initially had higher levels of stress and anxiety10. Community garden participation has also been associated with increases in quality of life and cognitive function14, especially among older adults11, 23.

Community gardens can reduce barriers to healthy food associated with transportation, cost, and food preference27, 28, and may increase food security6, 29. Community gardening may also reduce emissions from fossil fuels used to produce, process, and transport food30, 31, and may reduce the energy intensity of an individual’s diet if animal products are replaced with plant-based foods30. Community gardens can increase urban biodiversity, environmental sustainability, and permeable surfaces that reduce stormwater run-off and flood risk in cities13.

Successful community gardens may have broad neighborhood benefits such as increased nearby property values32, increased community engagement and pride33, 34, 35, and improved safety36. Community garden participation is associated with increased levels of civic participation2, social capital, neighborhood engagement, and satisfaction15, 26, 37. Interviews with gardeners in Lincoln, NE suggest community gardens may help develop a sense of belonging and connection with cultural identity, social community, and local environment, including benefits for individuals who identify as immigrants38. A New York City-based study of community gardens after Hurricane Sandy suggests the gardens may serve as places of social support, collective efficacy, and resilience during and after natural disasters39. Interviews with Latino community gardeners in New York suggest that gardens can host social, educational, and cultural events, and in some cases, promote local activism40. Community gardens provide resettled refugees an opportunity to plant culturally meaningful foods in a social setting and can improve physical, mental, and social well-being among resettled refugees28, 41.

Community gardens are relatively inexpensive, since residents maintain the land and gardens are often created in vacant abandoned lots27. Community gardening can reduce food costs for participating families42, 43. Among households with lower incomes, a higher percentage of community garden space is typically devoted to food production and culturally relevant crops, instead of ornamental plants or recreation space44.

Funding, participation, land, and materials, including water access, are typical challenges for community gardens45. Experts suggest city policies can establish and secure gardeners’ land33, for example, integrating community gardens into urban park systems46. Experts recommend cover crops to improve soil quality and nutrients, soil testing and guidance, perennial plants to provide habitats for non-pest insects, and educational programming and technical support in multiple languages to encourage participation and maximize yields from community gardens44. Experts also suggest using raised beds to avoid food safety concerns in community gardens where soil may have been contaminated with lead; over the long term, gardening can help improve soil quality and reduce food safety and health risks4. Gardeners can produce high value, high yield harvests especially when planting vertically grown crops, such as tomatoes and peppers42.

How could this strategy advance health equity? This strategy is rated potential to decrease disparities: supported by some evidence.

Community gardens established in under-resourced neighborhoods have the potential to decrease disparities in social, emotional, and physical health among racial and ethnic minorities, those with low incomes, older adults, and those living in urban areas3, 4, 14. Available evidence suggests among individuals identifying as racial or ethnic minorities and those with low incomes, community garden participation has positive effects on physical health, increases physical activity, increases fruit and vegetable consumption, improves food knowledge, improves both individual and community well-being, and increases social connectedness4. Placing community gardens in low income areas can reduce disparities in access to healthy foods, especially fresh fruits and vegetables19, 43. However, more studies are needed to compare outcomes after community garden participation between individuals from different income backgrounds2.

Available evidence suggests community gardening in urban areas can increase green space, environmental sustainability, and improve urban public health3, 13. These effects are likely to be greater in neighborhoods dealing with high levels of air pollution, urban heat island effects, and with many residents suffering from obesity and cardiovascular diseases3. In urban areas, vacant lot remediation using gardening and greening initiatives (e.g., initiatives that remove trash and debris; plant grass, bushes, and trees; and maintain lots afterwards) can reduce firearm violence. Such initiatives are more cost-effective than law enforcement policies, especially considering their additional environmental and health benefits36.

Among refugees, community garden participation may increase social connections, sense of belonging, self-worth, and independence4. One study associates community gardening with improved health outcomes among older adults (age 62 and older) more than among younger adults, and suggests community gardening may support healthy aging13.

What is the relevant historical background?

In the U.S., urban areas often experienced unrestrained industrialization without environmental regulations or land use controls creating many environmental problems, including water and air pollution, waste production, overconsumption of natural resources, and loss of green space13. Early U.S. environmental movements focused on conservation and nature preservation and did not consider urban environmental inequities or public health63. During the 1950s and 1960s, the urban renewal movement emphasized urban cleanup, redevelopment, and revitalization projects. However, urban renewal was planned and designed by city developers, excluding the voices of residents, mostly people of color. Urban renewal destroyed homes and community institutions such as churches, schools, recreational facilities, and ethnic organizations64. Households of color with low incomes were displaced to under-resourced urban areas and experienced many environmental injustices63.

Throughout U.S. history, discriminatory housing, lending, and exclusionary zoning policies entrenched racial residential segregation and concentrated poverty65, 66. The built environment in under-resourced communities is a significant contributor to health inequities for people of color with low incomes67, 68, 69. Disinvestment in and unequal distribution of recreational facilities, parks, and green space means that communities with low incomes and communities of color have fewer places to engage in outdoor activities, have less access to cooling shade, and experience poorer air quality70, 71. In the present day, formerly redlined neighborhoods remain more likely to include vacant lots and blighted properties, older homes in poor condition, coal-fired power plants, hazardous waste disposal sites, and other health risks72. As part of a broader effort to counteract urban disinvestment, vacant, blighted properties can be purchased and returned to productive use through redevelopment73, 74, which can include transforming vacant lots into community gardens to improve human health and environmental sustainability13, 36, 69.

In the U.S. there is a long history of establishing community gardens to address social issues and improve city life. In the 1890s, vacant lot gardens were used to address hunger and unemployment during an economic recession. The wartime gardens of World War I and victory gardens of World War II helped feed the country. After WWII, government support for community gardens dwindled as more affluent, mostly white residents left urban areas for suburban homes with room for private backyard gardens. Since the 1960s and 1970s, grassroots organizers and community organizations have been working to establish more community gardens in neighborhoods harmed by disinvestment to support urban revitalization, environmental stewardship, and community well-being75.

Equity Considerations
  • What neighborhoods in your community have vacant lots that could be transformed into community gardens? What neighborhoods have fewer green spaces and greater need for community gardening opportunities?
  • What infrastructure, services, resources, or tools are needed to help your local community gardens increase participation and thrive? (i.e. Municipal water service? Clean soil, compost, or mulch deliveries? Gardening education opportunities? Starter seeds or plant seedlings? Soil testing? Raised bed construction? etc.)
  • How can your community garden support local needs? What community building activities could increase participation? What outreach activities could raise awareness about opportunities to garden and increase neighborhood connections?
  • How is your community engaging intended participants, such as residents of color, those with low incomes, or older residents, in the planning and development of community garden spaces, programs, and events for the community?
Implementation Examples

Numerous municipalities support community gardens. For example, Seattle has integrated some gardens into parks via city policies and interdepartmental agreements46 and its P-Patch program uses a community land trust to acquire and preserve land, provide educational programming, and distribute materials such as seedlings and compost47. The San Francisco Community Gardens Program is run by the city on city-owned land48. Several municipalities have partnerships with land banks that donate property or help develop community gardens, as in Columbus, OH49 and Shelby County, TN50.

Community gardens often grow out of public and non-profit partnerships. For example, Grassroots Gardens of Western New York stewards 110 community gardens, and is applying to become the first accredited Community Garden Land Trust with the Land Trust Alliance51. Chicago NeighborSpace community land trust is authorized to purchase vacant land to preserve it for gardens52 and the Detroit Garden Resource Program works toward a city where the majority of fruits and vegetables consumed by residents are grown within the city limits53. The Boston Natural Areas Network works to preserve urban green spaces, including community gardens54.

Additional examples of organizations sustaining community gardens include: Nuestras Raíces in Holyoke, MA55; City Harvest in Philadelphia, PA56, 57; and the Summer Sprout community gardening program in Cleveland, OH58. The New York City Community Garden Coalition is an example of an organized group of gardeners using education, advocacy, and grassroots organizing to preserve and create community gardens59. Community Crops coordinates gardens in Lincoln, NE, offers gardening plots on a sliding fee scale, as well as training and technical assistance to beginning, immigrant, and limited-resource farmers60.

Community gardens can also be sustained in rural areas and smaller municipalities; for example, Community Food Initiatives supports five community garden locations in Athens County in southeastern Ohio61. Twelve Stones CDC is a non-profit organization that operates 2 community gardens in Barbour County, Alabama that provides free, fresh food to the Eufaula and Clayton communities62.

Implementation Resources

Resources with a focus on equity.

ACGA-Find gardens - American Community Gardening Association (ACGA). Locate your nearest community garden.

WI DHS-Got Dirt - Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WI DHS). Nutrition and physical activity program: Got dirt? Gardening initiative.

ChangeLab-Digging in - ChangeLab Solutions. Digging in: Local policies to support urban agriculture.

PolicyLink-CGs 2008 - PolicyLink. Equitable development toolkit: Urban agriculture and community gardens. 2008.

HA Davis-Gardening tips - Davis A. Home landscaping tips for building the perfect garden. HomeAdvisor (HA).

TT-Gardening resources - Topiary Trees (TT). Great gardening resources.

LHC-Rockeymoore 2014 - Rockeymoore M, Moscetti C, Fountain A. Rural childhood obesity prevention toolkit. Leadership for Healthy Communities (LHC), Center for Global Policy Solutions, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; 2014.

MD DOP-Food system 2012 - Maryland Department of Planning (MD DOP). Managing Maryland's growth planning for the food system. 2012.

USDA NAL-Gardening - U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), National Agricultural Library (NAL). Plant production and gardening.

USDA NRCS-Urban agriculture - U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Services (NRCS), Plant Materials Program. Urban agriculture.

Happy DIY Home - Happy DIY Home. 25 Incredible benefits of gardening.

ISU-Food and sustainability resources - Iowa State University (ISU), Sustainable Food Processing Alliance. Online resources for food and sustainability.

US DHHS-CGs - U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (U.S. DHHS), Administration for Community Living, Nutrition and Aging Resource Center. A healthier you with community gardens.


* Journal subscription may be required for access.

1 USDA NAL-Gardening - U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), National Agricultural Library (NAL). Plant production and gardening.

2 Hume 2022 - Hume C, Grieger JA, Kalamkarian A, D’Onise K, Smithers LG. Community gardens and their effects on diet, health, psychosocial and community outcomes: A systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2022;22(1).

3 Gregis 2021 - Gregis A, Ghisalberti C, Sciascia S, Sottile F, Peano C. Community garden initiatives addressing health and well‐being outcomes: A systematic review of infodemiology aspects, outcomes, and target populations. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021;18(4).

4 Dyg 2020 - Dyg PM, Christensen S, Peterson CJ. Community gardens and wellbeing amongst vulnerable populations: A thematic review. Health Promotion International. 2020;35(4):790-803.

5 Kunpeuk 2020 - Kunpeuk W, Spence W, Phulkerd S, Suphanchaimat R, Pitayarangsarit S. The impact of gardening on nutrition and physical health outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Promotion International. 2020;35(2):397-408.

6 Garcia 2018 - Garcia MT, Ribeiro SM, Germani ACCG, et al. The impact of urban gardens on adequate and healthy food: A systematic review. Public Health Nutrition. 2018;21(2):416-425.

7 Savoie-Roskos 2017 - Savoie-Roskos MR, Wengreen H, Durward C. Increasing fruit and vegetable intake among children and youth through gardening-based interventions: A systematic review. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

8 Girard 2012 - Girard AW, Self JL, McAuliffe C, Olude O. The effects of household food production strategies on the health and nutrition outcomes of women and young children: A systematic review. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. 2012;26(1):205-222.

9 Draper 2010 - Draper C, Freedman D. Review and analysis of the benefits, purposes, and motivations associated with community gardening in the United States. Journal of Community Practice. 2010;18(4):458-92.

10 Litt 2023 - Litt JS, Alaimo K, Harrall KK, et al. Effects of a community gardening intervention on diet, physical activity, and anthropometry outcomes in the USA (CAPS): An observer-blind, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Planetary Health. 2023;7(1):e23-e32.

11 Wang 2013 - Wang D, MacMillan T. The benefits of gardening for older adults: A systematic review of the literature. Activities, Adaptation & Aging. 2013;37(2):153-181.

12 Briggs 2022 - Briggs R, Morris PG, Rees K. The effectiveness of group-based gardening interventions for improving wellbeing and reducing symptoms of mental ill-health in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Mental Health. 2022.

13 Lampert 2021 - Lampert T, Costa J, Santos O, et al. Evidence on the contribution of community gardens to promote physical and mental health and well-being of non-institutionalized individuals: A systematic review. PLOS ONE. 2021;16(8):e0255621.

14 Soga 2017 - Soga M, Gaston KJ, Yamaura Y. Gardening is beneficial for health: A meta-analysis. Preventive Medicine Reports. 2017;5:92-99.

15 Alaimo 2016 - Alaimo K, Beavers AW, Crawford C, et al. Amplifying health through community gardens: A framework for advancing multicomponent, behaviorally based neighborhood interventions. Current Environmental Health Reports. 2016;3(3):302-312.

16 George 2013 - George DR. Harvesting the biopsychosocial benefits of community gardens. American Journal of Public Health. 2013;103(8):e6.

17 Zick 2013 - Zick CD, Smith KR, Kowaleski-Jones L, Uno C, Merrill BJ. Harvesting more than vegetables: The potential weight control benefits of community gardening. American Journal of Public Health. 2013;103(6):1110-1115.

18 Wang 2014 - Wang H, Qiu F, Swallow B. Can community gardens and farmers' markets relieve food desert problems: A study of Edmonton, Canada. Applied Geography. 2014;55:127-137.

19 Corrigan 2011 - Corrigan MP. Growing what you eat: Developing community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland. Applied Geography. 2011;31(4):1232-1241.

20 Hendrickson 2006 - Hendrickson D, Smith C, Eikenberry N. Fruit and vegetable access in four low-income food deserts communities in Minnesota. Agriculture and Human Values. 2006;23(3):371-383.

21 UW IRP-McCracken 2012 - McCracken VA, Sage JL, Sage RA. Bridging the gap: Do farmers’ markets help alleviate impacts of food deserts? Madison: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin-Madison; 2012: Discussion Paper 1401-12.

22 US DHHS-PAG - U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (U.S. DHHS). Physical activity guidelines for Americans (PAG).

23 Chen 2012b - Chen TY, Janke MC. Gardening as a potential activity to reduce falls in older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. 2012;20:15-31.

24 Keihner 2013 - Keihner AJ, Sugerman S, Linares AM, et al. Low-income Californians with access to produce in their home, school, work, and community environments eat more fruits and vegetables. Sacramento: Champions for Change; 2013.

25 Algert 2016 - Algert S, Diekmann L, Renvall M, et al. Community and home gardens increase vegetable intake and food security of residents in San Jose, California. California Agriculture. 2016;70(2):77-82.

26 Hopkins 2018 - Hopkins LC, Holben DH. Food insecure community gardeners in rural Appalachian Ohio more strongly agree that their produce intake improved and food spending decreased as a result of community gardening compared to food secure community gardeners. Journal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition. 2018;13(4):540-552.

27 CivicWell-CGs - CivicWell. Cultivating community gardens: The role of local government in creating healthy, livable neighborhoods.

28 Gichunge 2014 - Gichunge C, Kidwaro F. Utamu wa Afrika (the sweet taste of Africa): The vegetable garden as part of resettled African refugees' food environment. Nutrition & Dietetics. 2014;71(4):270-275.

29 Vitiello 2014 - Vitiello D, Grisso JA, Whiteside KL, Fischman R. From commodity surplus to food justice: Food banks and local agriculture in the United States. Agriculture and Human Values. 2014.

30 Ringling 2020 - Ringling KM, Marquart LF. Intersection of diet, health, and environment: Land grant universities’ role in creating platforms for sustainable food systems. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2020;4(70).

31 SSSA-McIvor 2017 - McIvor K. Soils in the city: Community gardens. Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). 2017.

32 Voicu 2008 - Voicu, I, Been V. The effect of community gardens on neighboring property values. Real Estate Economics. 2008;36(2):241-83.

33 Petrovic 2019 - Petrovic N, Simpson T, Orlove B, et al. Environmental and social dimensions of community gardens in East Harlem. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2019;183:36-49.

34 Litt 2015 - Litt JS, Schmiege SJ, Hale JW, et al. Exploring ecological, emotional and social levers of self-rated health for urban gardeners and non-gardeners: A path analysis. Social Science and Medicine. 2015;144:1-8.

35 Teig 2009 - Teig E, Amulya J, Bardwell, et al. Collective efficacy in Denver, Colorado: Strengthening neighborhoods and health through community gardens. Health & Place. 2009;15(4):1115-1122.

36 Sadatsafavi 2022 - Sadatsafavi H, Sachs NA, Shepley MM, Kondo MC, Barankevich RA. Vacant lot remediation and firearm violence – A meta-analysis and benefit-to-cost evaluation. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2022;218:104281.

37 Alaimo 2010 - Alaimo K, Reischi TM, Allen JO. Community gardening, neighborhood meetings, and social capital. Journal of Community Psychology. 2010;38(4):497-514.

38 Chan 2016 - Chan J, Pennisi L, Francis CA. Social-ecological refuges: Reconnecting in community gardens in Lincoln, Nebraska. Journal of Ethnobiology. 2016;36(4):842-860.

39 Chan 2015 - Chan J, DuBois B, Tidball KG. Refuges of local resilience: Community gardens in post-Sandy New York City. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 2015;14(3):625-635.

40 Saldivar-Tanaka 2004 - Saldivar-Tanaka L, Krasny ME. Culturing community development, neighborhood open space, and civic agriculture: The case of Latino community gardens in New York City. Agriculture and Human Values. 2004;21(4):399-412.

41 Eggert 2015 - Eggert LK, Blood-Siegfried J, Champagne M, Al-Jumally M, Biederman DJ. Coalition building for health: A community garden pilot project with apartment dwelling refugees. Journal of Community Health Nursing. 2015;32(3):141-150.

42 Algert 2014 - Algert SJ, Baameur A, Renvall MJ. Vegetable output and cost savings of community gardens in San Jose, California. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2014;114(7):1072-1076.

43 PolicyLink-Flournoy 2005 - Flournoy R, Treuhaft S. Healthy food, healthy communities: Improving access and opportunities through food retailing. Oakland: PolicyLink; 2005.

44 Gregory 2016 - Gregory MM, Leslie TW, Drinkwater LE. Agroecological and social characteristics of New York City community gardens: Contributions to urban food security, ecosystem services, and environmental education. Urban Ecosystems. 2016;19(2):763-794.

45 Drake 2015 - Drake L, Lawson LJ. Results of a U.S. and Canada community garden survey: Shared challenges in garden management amid diverse geographical and organizational contexts. Agriculture and Human Values. 2015;32(2):241-254.

46 Hou 2018 - Hou J, Grohmann D. Integrating community gardens into urban parks: Lessons in planning, design and partnership from Seattle. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 2018;33:46-55.

47 Seattle DON-CGs - Seattle Department of Neighborhoods (DON). P-Patch community gardening.

48 SF R&P-CGP - San Francisco Recreation & Park Department (SF R&P). Community gardens program (CGP).

49 Columbus-CGP - City of Columbus, OH. The city of Columbus land bank community garden program (CGP).

50 SC TN-CGs - Shelby County Tennessee (SC TN). Community gardens.

51 GGWNY-Land trust - Grassroots Gardens of Western New York (GGWNY). Our work as a land trust: Preserving Buffalo-Niagara’s community gardens for future generations.

52 Chicago NeighborSpace - Chicago NeighborSpace. NeighborSpace gardens: Grow together.

53 KGD-GRP - Keep Growing Detroit (KGD). Garden resource program (GRP).

54 Boston-Food justice - City of Boston, MA. Food justice: Community projects & initiatives including urban agriculture, community gardens, school gardens, and urban orchards.

55 Nuestras Raices - Nuestras Raices. Celebrating agri-culture.

56 PHS-CG - Pennsylvania Horticultural Society (PHS). Community gardens.

57 Vitiello 2009 - Vitiello D, Nairn M. Community gardening in Philadelphia: 2008 Harvest report. Philadelphia: Penn Planning and Urban Studies, University of Pennsylvania; 2009.

58 OSU-Community garden - Ohio State University (OSU). Summer Sprout: Cleveland's community gardening program.

59 NYCCGC - New York City Community Garden Coalition (NYCCGC). Promote the preservation, creation, and empowerment of community gardens through education, advocacy, and grassroots organizing.

60 CC-Lincoln - Community Crops (CC). Community gardens in Lincoln, Nebraska.

61 CFI-CGs - Community Food Initiatives (CFI). Community gardens and orchards.

62 Twelve Stones - Twelve Stones CDC. Community gardens serving the communities of Eufaula and Clayton, Alabama by providing free fresh food.

63 NEJAC 2006 - The National Environmental Justice Advisory Council (NEJAC). Unintended impacts of redevelopment and revitalization efforts in five environmental justice communities. 2006.

64 IHH-Urban renewal - The Inclusive Historian’s Handbook (IHH). Urban renewal.

65 Zdenek 2017 - Zdenek RO, Walsh D. Navigating community development: Harnessing comparative advantages to create strategic partnerships. Chapter: The background and history of community development organizations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan; 2017.

66 Kaplan 2007 - Kaplan J, Valls A. Housing discrimination as a basis for Black reparations. Public Affairs Quarterly. 2007;21(3):255-273.

67 Prochnow 2022 - Prochnow T, Valdez D, Curran LS, et al. Multifaceted scoping review of Black/African American transportation and land use expert recommendations on activity-friendly routes to everyday destinations. Health Promotion Practice. 2022.

68 McAndrews 2022 - McAndrews C, Schneider RJ, Yang Y, et al. Toward a gender-inclusive Complete Streets movement. Journal of Planning Literature. 2022;38(1):3-18.

69 Brookings-Semmelroth 2020 - Semmelroth L. How Wilmington, Del. is revitalizing vacant land to rebuild community trust. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution; 2020.

70 CAP-Rowland-Shea 2020 - Rowland-Shea J, Doshi S, Edberg S, Fanger R. The nature gap: Confronting racial and economic disparities in the destruction and protection of nature in America. Washington, D.C.: Center for American Progress (CAP); 2020.

71 TPL-Chapman 2021 - Chapman R, Foderaro L, Hwang L, et al. Parks and an equitable recovery. San Francisco, CA: The Trust for Public Land (TPL); 2021.

72 Braveman 2022 - Braveman PA, Arkin E, Proctor D, Kauh T, Holm N. Systemic and structural racism: Definitions, examples, health damages, and approaches to dismantling. Health Affairs. 2022;41(2):171-178.

73 FRB-Haralson 2005 - Haralson LE. Land banks restore neighborhoods...building by building, lot by lot. St. Louis: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; 2005.

74 WRLC - Western Reserve Land Conservancy (WRLC). History of land banks. Moreland Hills, Ohio.

75 Smithsonian-CGs - Smithsonian Gardens. Grown from the past: A short history of community gardening in the United States.