Strategies

Policies and programs that work

406 Strategies

Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)

Provide home visiting services to low income, first time mothers and their babies, starting during pregnancy and continuing through a child’s second birthday
Scientifically Supported
  • Family and Social Support

Nurse-friendly work environments

Improve work environments for nurses via establishment of strong nursing leadership, organizational support, etc.
Expert Opinion
  • Access to Care
  • Quality of Care

Nutrient management plans

Support site-specific plans for crop production that match nutrient applications to crop needs, typically with agricultural best management practices
Scientifically Supported
  • Air and Water Quality

Nutrition prescriptions

Provide prescriptions with healthy eating goals for patients and families, often accompanied by progress checks at office visits; can include partnerships with local farmers’ markets via FVRx programs
Expert Opinion
  • Diet and Exercise

Online grocery stores

Use internet-based shopping sites to supply refrigerated, frozen, and non-perishable groceries for residential ordering and delivery
Insufficient Evidence
  • Diet and Exercise

On-site child care

Provide employees with child care options at work; care may be provided free of charge, partially subsidized as part of an employee benefit package, or offered at market rates
Insufficient Evidence
  • Employment

Open gym time

Offer time during the school day for children to play in the gym, often during lunch period; shared use agreements can expand open gym opportunities to community members outside school hours
Expert Opinion
  • Diet and Exercise

Open Streets

Allow community members to gather, socialize, walk, run, bike, skate, etc. by closing selected streets temporarily to motorized traffic; also called Ciclovía programs
Expert Opinion
  • Diet and Exercise
  • Family and Social Support

Out of town bypasses

Establish roads that avoid built-up areas such as towns, cities, or commercial/business districts
Some Evidence
  • Housing and Transit
  • Community Safety

Outdoor experiential education & wilderness therapy

Support outdoor pursuits that emphasize inter- and intra-personal growth through overcoming obstacles (e.g., challenge courses, wilderness excursions, etc.)
Scientifically Supported
  • Family and Social Support

Paid family leave

Provide employees with paid time off for circumstances such as a recent birth or adoption, a parent or spouse with a serious medical condition, or a sick child
Scientifically Supported
  • Employment

Paid sick leave laws

Require employers in an affected jurisdiction to provide paid time off for employees to use when ill or injured
Some Evidence
  • Employment

Parents as Teachers (PAT)

Support home visits that teach parents about early childhood development and effective parenting strategies, with child development screenings, parental meetings, and links to community resources
Some Evidence
  • Education

Patient financial incentives for preventive care

Use payments, vouchers, and other incentives to encourage patients to undergo preventive care such as screenings, vaccinations, etc.
Scientifically Supported
  • Quality of Care

Patient navigators

Provide culturally sensitive assistance and care coordination, and guide patients through available medical, insurance, and social support; also called systems navigators
Scientifically Supported
  • Quality of Care

Patient safety checklists

Use visual tools to prompt safe practices, standardize communication, and ensure no step is forgotten before or during a medical procedure or other health care situation
Scientifically Supported
  • Quality of Care

Patient shared decision making

Support joint decision making between health care practitioners and patients through shared decision making (SDM); part of patient-centered care
Scientifically Supported
  • Quality of Care

Payday loan regulations

Regulate small, short-term loans that must be repaid by a borrower’s next pay day via bans, caps on maximum interest rates and loan amounts, minimum loan terms, truth in lending statements, etc.
Insufficient Evidence
  • Income

Permeable pavement projects

Use pervious concrete, porous asphalt, permeable interlocking pavers, open-jointed blocks or cells, or other permeable pavement in individual or commercial development efforts; also called porous or pervious pavement
Scientifically Supported
  • Air and Water Quality

Physically active classrooms

Incorporate classroom-based physical activities, such as classroom energizers, into academic lessons or as a break, usually for elementary students
Scientifically Supported
  • Diet and Exercise

Places for physical activity

Modify local environments to support physical activity, increase access to new or existing facilities for physical activity, or build new facilities
Scientifically Supported
  • Diet and Exercise

Playground safety regulations

Adopt regulations that address the safety of playground environment, equipment, and materials, as well as adult supervision
Some Evidence
  • Community Safety

Point-of-purchase prompts for healthy foods

Place motivational signs on posters, front of package labels, or shelf labels near fruits, vegetables and other items that encourage individuals to purchase healthier food options
Some Evidence
  • Diet and Exercise

Practice facilitation for primary care

Engage practice coaches or facilitators to work with primary care clinic staff to redesign clinical practices, organize quality improvement efforts, improve communication, share best practices, etc.
Scientifically Supported
  • Quality of Care

Preconception education interventions

Provide women with information about the risks and benefits of behaviors that affect their health before, during, and after pregnancy
Some Evidence
  • Access to Care

Preschool education programs

Provide center-based programs that support cognitive and social-emotional growth among children who are not old enough to enter formal schooling
Scientifically Supported
  • Education

Preschool programs with family support services

Provide center-based programs that support cognitive and social-emotional growth among young children from low income families, with supports such as home visiting or parental skills training
Scientifically Supported
  • Education

Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs)

Use databases, housed in state agencies, to track prescribing and dispensing of Schedule II, III, IV, and V drugs and other controlled substances
Some Evidence
  • Alcohol and Drug Use

Price transparency initiatives for patients

Make pricing for hospital procedures and other health care services publicly available, often via websites, online databases, report cards, or similar tools
Some Evidence
  • Quality of Care

Primary seat belt enforcement laws

Allow law enforcement officials to stop drivers solely for failing to use a seat belt
Scientifically Supported
  • Community Safety

Professionally trained medical interpreters

Provide interpretation services for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) in outpatient and inpatient health care settings, following training and certification
Scientifically Supported
  • Quality of Care

Promise Academy Charter Schools

Create a school culture of high behavioral and academic expectations, with intense tutoring, increased teacher performance feedback, lengthened instruction time, and health care services
Some Evidence
  • Education

Proper drug disposal programs

Establish programs that accept expired, unwanted, or unused medicines from designated users and dispose of them responsibly
Expert Opinion
  • Alcohol and Drug Use
  • Air and Water Quality

Public reporting of health care quality performance

Make clinician, clinic, hospital, long-term care facility and insurance plan performance on health care quality measures publicly available via report cards, reporting websites, or similar tools
Some Evidence
  • Quality of Care

Public transportation systems

Introduce or expand transportation options that are available to the public and run on a scheduled timetable (e.g., buses, trains, ferries, rapid transit, etc.)
Scientifically Supported
  • Housing and Transit

Publicly-funded pre-kindergarten programs

Provide publicly-funded pre-kindergarten (pre-K) education to 3- and 4-year-olds, through large-scale or universal efforts
Scientifically Supported
  • Education

Radon mitigation programs

Prevent radon from entering occupied buildings and reduce existing indoor air radon levels via soil depressurization, home or room pressurization, heat recovery ventilation, etc.
Some Evidence
  • Housing and Transit

Rain barrels

Use ready-made or home constructed barrel systems to collect and store rainwater from rooftops that would otherwise flow to storm drains and streams
Some Evidence
  • Air and Water Quality

Rain gardens & other bioretention systems

Establish bioretention systems (e.g., rain gardens, bioretention cells, green roofs, planter boxes, bioswales, etc.) to make city landscapes more permeable
Scientifically Supported
  • Air and Water Quality

Rapid re-housing programs

Transition families and individuals experiencing homelessness into permanent housing quickly, often with supports such as short-term financial assistance, case management, landlord negotiations, etc.
Some Evidence
  • Housing and Transit

Reach Out and Read

Partner with doctors, nurse practitioners, and other medical professionals to incorporate literacy support into regular well-child visits, especially in lower income communities
Scientifically Supported
  • Education

Recreational marijuana legalization

Allow adults to possess a limited amount of marijuana for personal, non-medical use
Insufficient Evidence
  • Alcohol and Drug Use
  • Community Safety

Recreational sports leagues for adults

Offer opportunities for adults to play athletic games such as soccer, softball, kickball, basketball, etc. at beginner, intermediate, and competitive levels
Expert Opinion
  • Diet and Exercise

Refundable child and dependent care tax credit

Offer a refundable tax credit to working families with qualifying children or other dependents that receive care outside the home (e.g., a spouse with disabilities)
Expert Opinion
  • Income

Rent regulation policies

Establish tenant protections via regulations to the housing rental market such as limits on rent increases and eviction protections for tenants with low incomes; typically via rent stabilization
Expert Opinion
  • Housing and Transit

Reproductive life plans

Establish plans consistent with personal values and current life circumstances that set goals related to having or not having children; goals often change over time
Expert Opinion
  • Access to Care