Healthy home environment assessments engage home visitors, often community health workers (CHWs), similarly trained asthma outreach workers, other professionals, paraprofessionals, or volunteers to assess and remediate environmental health risks within the home1, 2. Programs typically focus on improving asthma management via low cost changes such as improved ventilation, integrated pest management (IPM), and other forms of allergen control. Programs may also provide low emission vacuums, allergen-impermeable bedding covers, air filters, cleaning supplies, and supplies for roach abatement3, 4.
Expected Beneficial Outcomes (Rated)
Reduced exposure to allergens
Reduced hospital utilization
Improved health outcomes
Other Potential Beneficial Outcomes
Improved asthma management
Improved quality of life
Improved indoor air quality
Evidence of Effectiveness
There is strong evidence that healthy home environment assessments encourage household behaviors that reduce asthma triggers and exposure to allergens5, 6, 7, 8, decrease use of urgent care and related health care costs2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, and improve health outcomes3, 4, 5, 6, 8.
Healthy home environment assessments conducted by community health workers (CHWs) or trained asthma outreach workers reduce children’s allergy and asthma symptoms, use of asthma medications, and asthma-related hospital visits6, and may also reduce the number of asthma-related doctor’s appointments11. Programs have been shown to improve asthma self-management, increase the number of asthma symptom free days2, 5, 10, 12, 13, and can reduce activity restrictions for asthmatic children5. Programs improve quality of life2, 5, 10, 12, 13 and reduce school and work absences for asthmatic children and their caregivers5.
Healthy home environment assessment programs benefit adults and children with asthma in urban and rural areas9 and reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes among children with asthma5. Such programs increase the use of air filters, improve allergy and asthma symptoms, and reduce exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) for urban, minority children from low income families6, as well as for asthmatic adults and children in lower quality housing3, 4. Programs have also been shown to improve home air quality and reduce urgent care admissions for minority and disadvantaged families in rural areas2, 14.
Healthy home environment assessments improve user comfort, including temperature and humidity, and may reduce the presence of molds7. Programs can increase knowledge of home hazards and reduce them, including basement, roof, and plumbing leaks, particularly if program methods and materials are sensitive to low literacy levels and cultural differences among participants11.
Economic evaluations indicate healthy home environment assessments achieve high cost savings largely due to averted urgent care clinic visits, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations2, 5, 8, 9, 13. Low-intensity, healthy home environment assessment programs for people with asthma show greater cost reductions when services are targeted to those with the worst controlled asthma, including children and adults in rural and urban settings9.
Impact on Disparities
Healthy home environment assessments are in place throughout the country. For example, Seattle, Washington’s King County Asthma Program, Healthy Homes, engages community health workers (CHWs) to conduct home visits focused on controlling asthma3, 15. The Master Home Environmentalist Program (MHEP) launched by Washington’s American Lung Association, trains volunteers to identify health hazards in the home (e.g. dust, lead, household chemicals, mold, and other air pollutants), use low cost methods to reduce risks, and train families to improve their home environments1.
The Eastern Carolina Asthma Prevention Program’s Asthma Case Managers (ACM) provide education and resources to control asthma and allergen triggers in the home, largely to low income families with children2, 16. The Minnesota Department of Health’s Asthma Program offers training, resources, and mentoring for local public health agencies interested in delivering asthma home-based services, including environmental assessments17.
ALA-MHE - American Lung Association (ALA). The Master Home Environmentalist (MHE) Program.
Clean Air-HEAL - Clean Air for Kids Partnership. Directions for the do-it-yourself home environmental assessment list (HEAL).
ACEEE-Smarter House - American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE). Smarter House: Reduce your impact and home energy breakdown.
WAC - Children's Health Alliance of Wisconsin. Wisconsin Asthma Coalition (WAC). Home Walkthrough Program: Report and checklist to identify low and no-cost solutions to asthma triggers.
LHS - Local Housing Solutions (LHS). To enhance local affordability and foster inclusive communities. New York University, Furman Center and Abt Associates, Inc.
MDH-Asthma toolkit - Minnesota Department of Health (MDH). Asthma home-based services toolkit.
LHS-COVID-19 response - Local Housing Solutions (LHS). Housing issues: COVID-19. New York University, Furman Center and Abt Associates, Inc.
* Journal subscription may be required for access.
1 ALA-MHE - American Lung Association (ALA). The Master Home Environmentalist (MHE) Program.
2 Kearney 2014 - Kearney GD, Johnson LC, Xu X, et al. Eastern Carolina Asthma Prevention Program (ECAPP): An environmental intervention study among rural and underserved children with asthma in Eastern North Carolina. Environmental Health Insights. 2014;8:27-37.
3 Campbell 2015* - Campbell JD, Brooks M, Hosokawa P, et al. Community health worker home visits for Medicaid-enrolled children with asthma: Effects on asthma outcomes and costs. American Journal of Public Health. 2015;105(11):2366-2372.
4 Krieger 2015* - Krieger J, Song L, Philby M. Community health worker home visits for adults with uncontrolled asthma: The HomeBASE trial randomized clinical trial. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2015;175(1):109-117.
5 Uchima 2019* - Uchima O, Sentell T, Dela Cruz MR, Braun KL. Community health workers in pediatric asthma education programs in the United States: A systematic literature review. Children’s Health Care. 2019;48(2):215-243.
6 Welker 2018* - Welker K, Nabors L, Lang M, Bernstein J. Educational and home-environment asthma interventions for children in urban, low-income, minority families. Journal of Asthma. 2018;55(12):1301-1314.
7 LeCann 2017 - Le Cann P, Paulus H, Glorennec P, et al. Home environmental interventions for the prevention or control of allergic and respiratory diseases: What really works. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice. 2017;5(1):66-79.
8 Jassal 2013* - Jassal MS, Diette GB, Dowdy DW. Cost-consequence analysis of multimodal interventions with environmental components for pediatric asthma in the state of Maryland. Journal of Asthma. 2013;50(6):672-680.
9 Gomez 2017* - Gomez M, Reddy AL, Dixon SL, Wilson J, Jacobs DE. A cost-benefit analysis of a state-funded healthy homes program for residents with asthma: Findings from the New York State Healthy Neighborhoods program. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. 2017;23(2):229-238.
10 Turcotte 2018* - Turcotte DA, Chaves E, Gore R, Adejumo KL, Woskie S. The impact of housing type on low-income asthmatic children receiving multifaceted home interventions. Public Health. 2018;164:107-114.
11 Mankikar 2016 - Mankikar D, Campbell C, Greenberg R. Evaluation of a home-based environmental and educational intervention to improve health in vulnerable households: Southeastern Pennsylvania lead and healthy homes program. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016;13(9):1-15.
12 Kapheim 2015* - Kapheim MG, Ramsay J, Schwindt T, Hunt BR, Margellos-Anast H. Utilizing the community health worker model to communicate strategies for asthma self-management and self-advocacy among public housing residents. Journal of Communication in Healthcare: Strategies, Media and Engagement in Global Health. 2015;8(2):95-105.
13 Margellos-Anast 2012* - Margellos-Anast H, Gutierrez MA, Whitman S. Improving asthma management among African-American children via a community health worker model: Findings from a Chicago-based pilot intervention. Journal of Asthma. 2012;49(4):380-389.
14 Postma 2011 - Postma JM, Smalley K, Ybarra V, Kieckhefer G. The feasibility and acceptability of a home-visitation, asthma education program in a rural, latino/a population. Journal of Asthma. 2011;48(2):139-46.
15 Seattle-Asthma program - Public Health: Seattle & King County. Guidelines to Practice (G2P): Reducing Asthma Health Disparities through Guideline Implementation. Program works with clinics, health plans, and with patients in their homes to improve asthma care of children and adults.
16 ECAPP - Eastern Carolina Asthma Prevention Program (ECAPP). Reduce asthma attacks, emergency department visits and asthma hospitalizations among rural, low income families with children with asthma.
17 MDH-Asthma toolkit - Minnesota Department of Health (MDH). Asthma home-based services toolkit.
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