Alternative high schools for students at risk of dropping out

Evidence Rating  
Evidence rating: Scientifically Supported

Strategies with this rating are most likely to make a difference. These strategies have been tested in many robust studies with consistently positive results.

Health Factors  
Decision Makers
Date last updated

Alternative high schools provide educational opportunities for students whose needs are not met by a traditional school model, often, students who have quit, been expelled, or are at increased risk of dropping out. Alternative schools generally offer services such as childcare or support groups, have a flexible structure, supportive environments, and small classes, and emphasize interactions between teachers and students. Such schools are frequently established in communities with low incomes and housed outside of traditional schools. Alternative high schools are distinct from community-based alternative education programs for students at risk of dropping out that supplement traditional high school learning1.

What could this strategy improve?

Expected Benefits

Our evidence rating is based on the likelihood of achieving these outcomes:

  • Increased high school completion

What does the research say about effectiveness?

There is strong evidence that alternative high schools for students at risk of dropping out improve high school completion rates1, 2. On average, alternative schools increase completion rates among students at risk of dropping out by 15.5%1.

Interviews with students at risk of dropping out suggest that students are more likely to stay in alternative high schools that provide safe spaces physically, emotionally, and psychologically; foster a sense of community; affirm students’ racial/ethnic identities; and use flexible disciplinary systems based on discussion and conflict resolution3.

Implementation challenges such as staffing or funding difficulties, problems with the physical space, and low program attendance or completion rates can reduce the effectiveness of alternative high schools2.

The cost of alternative schools varies significantly, ranging from $1,700 to $12,900 per student. The estimated benefit to cost ratio for alternative schools ranges from 0.6 to 1 to 1.6 to 11.

How could this strategy impact health disparities? This strategy is rated likely to decrease disparities.
Implementation Examples

Alternative education programs have been formally defined in 43 states; definitions vary, but usually include guidelines about services, for example, regular academic instruction (21 states), counseling (14 states), social and life skills training (13 states), vocational and workplace preparation (12 states), or behavioral services (e.g., anger management or conflict resolution) (11 states)4.

In the 2007-2008 school year, there were about 10,300 alternative schools or alternative education programs for students at risk of dropping out administered by school districts across the country; approximately 63% of these schools or programs were offered in facilities outside of traditional public schools5. University High School in Boston, MA and Middle College High School in Seattle, WA are examples of alternative high schools that offer enhanced social services, flexible enrollment policies, small classes, counseling and mentoring support, and vocational training and work experiences6, 7.

Several national non-profit organizations have developed alternative education programs into pathways to earn high school diplomas or GEDs. For example, The Corps Network supports students earning high school diplomas or GEDs with more personal attention in the classroom; comprehensive academic, career, and personal counseling; and job skills training8.

Implementation Resources

PSR-State search - Public School Review (PSR). Find public schools: Search public schools by state.

Urban-Aron 2006 - Aron LY. An overview of alternative education. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute; 2006.


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1 CG-TFR Education - The Guide to Community Preventive Services (The Community Guide). Task Force Recommends (TFR) center-based early childhood education programs (ECE) to improve educational outcomes that are associated with long-term health as well as social- and health-related outcomes.

2 Campbell-Wilson 2011 - Wilson SJ, Tanner-Smith EE, Lipsey MW, Steinka-Fry KT, Morrison J. Dropout prevention and intervention programs: Effects on school completion and dropout among school-aged children and youth: A systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews. 2011:8.

3 O’Gorman 2016 - O’Gorman E, Salmon N, Murphy CA. Schools as sanctuaries: A systematic review of contextual factors which contribute to student retention in alternative education. International Journal of Inclusive Education. 2016;20(5):536-551.

4 IES-Porowski 2014 - Porowski A, O’Conner R, Luo JL. How do states define alternative education? Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education (U.S. ED), Institute of Education Sciences (IES), National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE), Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic (REL); 2014.

5 NCES-Rouse Carver 2010 - Rouse Carver P, Lewis L. Alternative schools and programs for public school students at risk of educational failure: 2007–08. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education (U.S. ED), National Center for Education Statistics (NCES); 2010.

6 ABCD-UHS - Action for Boston Development (ABCD). University High School (UHS).

7 SPS-MCHS - Seattle Public Schools (SPS). Middle College High School (MCHS): An alternative high school option.

8 TCN-Impacts - The Corps Network (TCN). Our impact.