Community in Action
Community health workers (CHWs), sometimes called lay health workers, promotoras(es) de salud, community health representatives (in tribal health programs), or community health advisors, serve a variety of functions, including providing outreach, education, referral and follow-up, case management, advocacy, home visiting services1, and collecting data to identify communities’ health needs2. CHWs may work autonomously in the community or as part of a multi-disciplinary team in primary or specialty care. Training varies with intended role and location, though it is usually less than three years3. CHW services are usually provided to communities with fewer resources and to individuals who experience barriers in accessing health care, such as ethnic or racial minorities, immigrants, those earning lower incomes4 3 and individuals who were previously incarcerated5, as well as providing coverage in rural areas6. CHWs provide culturally appropriate care, usually focused on disease education, management, and prevention, and less often, maternal and child health through home visiting programs3. CHWs can work in clinics, schools, individuals’ homes, and other community locations7. CHWs’ traditional employers are public health departments and community-based organizations, although employment by health systems and insurers is increasing8.
Expected Beneficial Outcomes (Rated)
Increased patient knowledge
Increased access to care
Increased healthy behaviors
Increased preventive care
Other Potential Beneficial Outcomes
Increased breastfeeding rates
Improved mental health
Evidence of Effectiveness
There is some evidence that community health workers (CHWs) improve access to health care and increase patient knowledge and healthy behaviors4. Health effects appear strongest for preventive care interventions focused on cardiovascular disease9, diabetes10, 11, and health behaviors such as screening for cancer or other diseases4, 12. CHW interventions can improve health among individuals from minority groups and in communities with fewer resources, reducing disparities in health outcomes and enhancing health equity4, 9, 10, 13. However, effects vary by program and context, and additional evidence is needed to confirm which interventions are most effective for specific conditions4, 13, 14.
CHW interventions can help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD)9, 12. Interventions that engage CHWs as part of team-based care improve blood pressure and cholesterol in patients at increased risk for CVD. When engaged as health educators and outreach, enrollment, and information agents, CHWs appear to increase healthy behaviors in patients at increased risk for CVD and may also help reduce CVD-related morbidity and mortality9. For patients with diabetes, CHW interventions can improve glycemic and lipid control and reduce healthcare use10, and may improve diabetes-related self-management behaviors, knowledge, and self-efficacy11, including among Latino patients15. A Pennsylvania-based study suggests CHW support can improve chronic disease control, including clinical outcomes related to diabetes, obesity, and smoking, among Black individuals living with multiple chronic diseases and experiencing poverty, as well as improve mental health and quality of care and reduce hospital admissions16. In some instances, CHWs can increase physical activity among those at risk for or diagnosed with chronic disease17.
By reaching and mobilizing populations within their communities, CHWs have been shown to improve access to care for patients that may not otherwise receive care18, such as older adults from ethnic minority populations19 or with complex health conditions20. CHWs can also increase screenings for cancer, such as for colorectal cancer, mammograms, and pap testing for cervical cancer4, 12, 14, including among women from ethnic minority groups, such as Korean American and Vietnamese American women14, women who are recent immigrants21, and older Latina women who do not have health insurance and are earning lower incomes22. CHWs can also improve access to high-quality mental health services, though their scope of care is more limited in the US than in lower-income countries13.
CHWs can provide a range of maternal and child health services, often as part of home visiting programs23. Community health workers appear to enhance access to pre- and post-natal care18, 23, 24, can increase breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity among women with lower incomes and Black women18, 25, and may decrease the severity of post-partum depression symptoms25. CHWs can increase childhood immunization rates25, 26 and improve TB treatment outcomes25. CHW interventions may also reduce symptoms and urgent care use among children with chronic conditions27. CHW interventions addressing childhood obesity, most commonly through health behavior education or counseling, may modestly decrease BMI and may help reduce disparities between communities with less resources and those with more; experts note promising practices include programs delivered in a group setting, to parents and children7.
A U.S.-based model, Transitions Clinic Network, supports individuals that are returning to the community from incarceration by including CHWs on teams providing primary, behavioral, and mental health care, as well as social support. This model may reduce individuals’ hospitalizations, in amount and duration, as well as parole and probation violations5, and has the potential to reduce criminal justice system costs and produce $2.55 in state savings per dollar invested28. Pairing registered nurses and CHWs may increase latent tuberculosis infection treatment completion rates among adults experiencing homelessness, especially those age 50 or older29.
Experts suggest establishing a comprehensive policy for formalization of CHW roles that incorporates occupational regulation30, a more defined scope of practice30, 31, 32, and more standardized workforce training30, 32, job titling33 and certification30, 32. Some experts caution that required or voluntary certification may make it harder for organizations to recruit or retain CHWs, though certification can increase CHWs’ professional legitimacy1, may increase wages, and is required by some insurers, such as Medicaid, for reimbursement8. In some states, training must be led or co-led by an experienced CHW1.
Successful CHW programs have high-quality supervision that is supportive rather than punitive, provide regular logistical support such as with supplies and transportation, and involve communities in decisions about CHW hiring and activities. Community participation can increase their sense of ownership, trust, and acceptance of CHW efforts, which is associated with positive outcomes such as CHW retention, performance, and effectiveness4. CHWs have strong affiliations with the communities and individuals they serve and programs should anticipate and help CHWs navigate possible tension if the priorities of the health system or CHW employer compete with local priorities4.
When integrating CHWs into primary care, teams often include CHWs along with nurses, physicians, and dieticians, while broader teams may include staff such as social workers or traditional healers34. Experts suggest the most effective teams have a shared understanding of roles, norms, values, and goals; practice egalitarianism, with patients and families’ preferences respected; cooperate, recognizing all members’ contributions; work interdependently; and demonstrate synergy, meaning the patient outcome was better than if they had not been treated using a team approach34.
Experts also stress the importance of identifying sustainable funding mechanisms for CHW services30, 31, 32, such as Medicaid payment, which is more sustainable than short-term grant funding8, 30. Cost analyses suggest that integrating CHWs into the health care system can be cost-effective for certain conditions4, 12. CHW interventions for cardiovascular disease prevention and diabetes management9, 10 and to promote cervical and colorectal cancer screening appear to be cost-effective. In urban U.S. settings, CHW interventions which increase colorectal cancer screening may be associated with net savings in healthcare costs35, and the IMPaCT intervention, in which CHWs support individuals living with chronic disease, is estimated to return $2.00 for every dollar invested, through reductions in hospitalization16. A Detroit-based study of CHWs funded through Medicaid finds that CHWs can reduce ER use and increase outpatient care among Medicaid recipients, offsetting cost savings in the short term; however, increased outpatient care among individuals who underuse such care could contribute to cost savings in the long-term36.
Potential to decrease disparities: Supported by some evidence
There is some evidence community health workers (CHWs) decrease disparities in health outcomes and access to care for individuals from minority groups and in communities with fewer resources, enhancing health equity4, 9, 10, 12, 34.
CHW interventions can improve access to care for patients that may not otherwise receive care including women18 and older adults from ethnic minority populations14, 19. CHW interventions are usually focused on improving health and well-being among those communities and individuals who are members of minority groups, socially or economically marginalized, or who face geographic, language, or other barriers to accessing care3, 4. CHW interventions have been shown to be effective among Blacks18, 25, Hispanics19, Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders33, and the effects of CHW interventions are stronger when the CHW and patients have the same racial or ethnic background57.
CHWs hired locally and with training in cultural sensitivity can improve the effectiveness of primary care teams treating individuals with chronic illness34 and act as a bridge between individuals and the medical system11. Successfully integrating CHWs onto interdisciplinary primary care teams can improve access to care and outcomes for diseases such as diabetes and asthma and reduce health disparities34.
Experts suggest that CHWs who are members of the community they serve can enhance the cultural relevance of public health efforts in addition to providing bilingual support7. In Native communities, Native community health workers may increase access to care, including cancer screening and maternal and child health services, and promote positive mental health outcomes, increased economic self-determination, and sovereignty58. In general, CHW interventions can support individuals’ positive mental health outcomes and reduce disparities in access to high-quality mental health services, though CHWs’ scope of care in the US could be expanded to include evidence-based counseling therapies, as in low- and middle-income countries13. Experts suggest the role and function of CHWs can strengthen health systems and support providing care that is equitable and affordably increases access to more comprehensive care and services4, 59.
The median annual wage for CHWs is lower than other occupations and turnover rates are higher, likely due to low wages, lack of professional and organizational recognition, and short-term grant funding typical of CHW programs8. The majority of CHWs in the US are women, and wage disparities associated with sex, race, and ethnicity influence conditions for CHWs8. State models for certification may decrease turnover among CHWs who are male and non-white, but in general, wage increases among CHWs appear to be higher for those who are male, white, and employed as CHWs part-time, compared with CHWs who are female, non-white, and full time8.
Communities have long recognized individuals not trained in clinical or Western medicine as providers of essential health services. Roles closer to modern community health workers evolved as physician training and healthcare became more formalized, leaving some communities without access to more modern healthcare services. For example, in China from the 1920s to the 1970s, individuals from varied backgrounds combined traditional practices with short-term formal medical training to provide health education, vaccinations, and basic medical care in rural villages, as well as collecting health data60. Similar programs became popular throughout Asia and Latin America, with the World Health Organization promoting the approach in the 1970s; however, program challenges related to funding, continuing education, and recognition of CHWs in health systems, as well as significant global political and economic crises, meant that many countries were forced to end their CHW programs61.
CHW programs in the U.S. were also designed to expand access to care for communities geographically distant from or unfairly excluded from mainstream health care because of race, ethnicity, or poverty60. Such programs became more popular in the 1960s and 1970s as part of social justice movements, with CHWs typically being members of the community where they work, based on the belief that community members are best positioned to understand their community and to evaluate its needs and identify solutions1. Some programs called workers “neighborhood health aides” and focused on promoting health and well-being among migrant farmworkers, Native individuals, those experiencing poverty, and other groups62. CHWs in the U.S. have always provided a broad range of services, such as disease prevention and management, including to those with illnesses marginalized or stigmatized by mainstream health care such as HIV/AIDS, maternal and child health services, mental health support, and community advocacy1. Though programs in the U.S. faced challenges in the 1980s and 1990s, similar to programs globally, more recently CHWs have received increased government recognition and funding63. In 2009, the Bureau of Labor Statistics created an occupational classification for CHWs, and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 provided significant funding to grow CHW programs63, 64. The U.S. Department of Labor recognizes CHWs as health professionals providing cost-effective care within health systems64.
- Does your community employ CHWs, either working independently or as part of interdisciplinary health care teams?
- How are CHWs recruited to programs? Are community members involved in selecting CHWs and developing the programs?
- Are partnerships in place, such as between academic institutions, non-profits, health care systems, and community-based organizations to sustain and evolve programs based on community needs?
- Is sustainable funding available to train and employ CHWs? What steps can programs take to secure long-term funding?
- What supervision and supports are available to CHWs working in your community, to help them address challenges and develop professionally?
- Are there groups who might benefit from CHW services in your community who are not currently receiving them? (For example, individuals leaving incarceration, immigrants, or others who commonly experience barriers to accessing health care and social services.)
Community health workers (CHWs) practice across the country, providing a variety of services in diverse settings. As of 2021, states with the highest concentration of CHWs are Alaska, Kentucky, New Mexico, New York, and Washington2. Most states have some statewide definitions, standards, and policies for CHWs and as of 2020, 18 states have statewide certification, either required37 or using a voluntary certification process38. CHW organizations, consisting of mostly CHW members, exist in 31 states and can be strong advocates for the CHW workforce, including in certification decisions37. As of July 2022, Medicaid payment for some CHW services or for specific populations is authorized in at least 29 states39. The non-profit MHP Salud develops CHW programs across the U.S. which focus on Hispanic and Latino communities and maintains a directory of states’ CHW organizations, multi-stakeholder coalitions, and certification programs40. Very few states routinely monitor statewide employer readiness or CHW employment, as recommended by experts37.
In 2022, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) awarded $225.5 million in American Rescue Plan funding to support CHW training; grantees include organizations in rural areas and Hawaii, and the Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board41. The CDC initiative Community Health Workers for COVID Response and Resilient Communities (CCR) began in 2021 and provides three years of financial support and technical assistance to states, localities, territories, tribes, and more to increase the number of CHWs in communities experiencing the most severe impacts of COVID-19 and communities with a long history of health disparities42. The Envision Equity multi-state partnership of CHWs and allies provides training and technical support to CCR grantees43. National Institutes of Health also has a CHW Health Disparities Initiative focused on reducing racial disparities in heart disease, with resources for CHW training, network-building, and evaluation44. Transitions Clinic Network (TCN) is a national network of primary care facilities supporting individuals returning to the community from incarceration; the network includes 14 states and Puerto Rico45. The TCN model includes hiring and training CHWs with lived experience of incarceration to play a key role on care teams46.
A variety of CHW programs provide important care across the rural U.S.47. Examples include Kentucky Homeplace, a CHW program serving counties in eastern Kentucky since 1994 and managed by the University of Kentucky College of Medicine48. Kentucky Homeplace CHWs can provide health education, referrals, and advocacy, and assistance arranging transportation48. To ensure health services reach Native communities in rural Alaska, the state’s Health Aide model blends Western and traditional health practice and provides training and certification for behavioral, community, and dental health aides with a greater scope of care than CHWs, with required oversight by a licensed clinician49. Arizona’s long-running Health Start program employs CHWs in several counties and focuses on pre- and post-natal referral, education, and advocacy services for families with children up to age two50, 51. The Arizona Community Health Workers Association (AzCHOW) aims to include CHWs in the field’s policy decisions and guides development of training programs, including for CHWs to receive voluntary certification52.
CHW programs can use emerging technology to enhance training and CHW outreach. The University of New Mexico’s Project ECHO uses the ECHO model to facilitate training CHWs as part of multi-disciplinary care teams, using in-person and virtual formats to present cases and offer peer support53. Medical professionals from the University of Michigan, and a community advisory board including local health department staff and CHWs, developed an oral health e-learning module that is now part of the state’s standard CHW certification and training materials54. In Oregon, federally-qualified health care center One Community Health partnered with De Las Mías, a digital platform and app designed for and by Latinas to support health and well-being, to add a CHW interface. CHWs from One Community Health will combine in-person engagement with the evidence-based technology55. The University of Pennsylvania’s IMPaCT Community program assists health care organizations in developing a CHW workforce, including offering technology such as decision support tools and analytics56.
‡ Resources with a focus on equity.
CDC-CHW Toolkit - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention. Community health worker (CHW) toolkit.
NASHP-CHW Models - National Academy for State Health Policy (NASHP). State community health worker models.
CHW Central - CHW Central. A global resource for and about community health workers.
RHIhub-CHW - Rural Health Information Hub (RHIhub). Community health workers toolkit.
RHIhub-CHW Innovation - Rural Health Information Hub (RHIhub). Community health workers in rural settings: Models and innovation.
Georgetown-Scott 2008 - Scott J, Dunning L. Community health worker code of ethics toolkit. Washington, DC: Harrison Institute for Public Law, Georgetown University Law Center for the American Association of Community Health Workers (AACHW); 2008.
NACHW-DRC - National Association of Community Health Workers (NACHW). CHW document resource center.
* Journal subscription may be required for access.
1 NACHW-Mason 2021 - Mason TH, Rush CH, Sugarman MK. Statewide training approaches for community health workers. Boston: National Association of Community Health Workers (NACHW); 2021.
2 US BLS-CHWs 2021 - US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Occupational employment and wages, May 2021. 21-1094 Community health workers.
3 Olaniran 2017 - Olaniran A, Smith H, Unkels R, Bar-Zeev S, van den Broek N. Who is a community health worker? A systematic review of definitions. Global Health Action. 2017;10(1):1272223.
4 Scott 2018 - Scott K, Beckham S, Gross M, et al. What do we know about community-based health worker programs? A systematic review of existing reviews on community health workers. Human Resources for Health. 2018;16:39.
5 Wang 2019a - Wang EA, Lin H, Aminawung JA, et al. Propensity-matched study of enhanced primary care on contact with the criminal justice system among individuals recently released from prison to New Haven. BMJ Open. 2019;9:e028097.
6 RHIhub-CHW - Rural Health Information Hub (RHIhub). Community health workers toolkit.
7 Schroeder 2018 - Schroeder K, McCormick R, Perez A, Lipman TH. The role and impact of community health workers in childhood obesity interventions: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews. 2018;19(10):1371-1384.
8 Jones 2022a - Jones TM, Jeung C, Schulte A, Lewis CM, Maddox PJ. Hourly wages and turnover of community health workers according to US state certification policy and Medicaid reimbursement, 2010–2021. American Journal of Public Health. 2022;112(10):1480-1488.
9 CG-CVD 2015 - The Guide to Community Preventive Services (The Community Guide). Heart disease and stroke prevention: Cardiovascular disease (CVD).
10 CG-Diabetes Management 2017 - The Guide to Community Preventive Services (The Community Guide). Diabetes management: Interventions engaging community health workers. 2017.
11 Trump 2017 - Trump LJ, Mendenhall TJ. Community health workers in diabetes care: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Families, Systems & Health. 2017;35(3):320-340.
12 Kim 2016 - Kim K, Choi JS, Choi E, et al. Effects of community-based health worker interventions to improve chronic disease management and care among vulnerable populations: A systematic review. American Journal of Public Health. 2016;106(4):e3-e28.
13 Barnett 2018 - Barnett ML, Gonzalez A, Miranda J, Chavira DA, Lau AS. Mobilizing community health workers to address mental health disparities for underserved populations: A systematic review. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. 2018;45(2):195-211.
14 Bellhouse 2018 - Bellhouse S, McWilliams L, Firth J, Yorke J, French DP. Are community-based health worker interventions an effective approach for early diagnosis of cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psycho-Oncology. 2018;27(4):1089-1099.
15 Little 2014 - Little TV, Wang ML, Castro EM, Jimenez J, Rosal MC. Community health worker interventions for Latinos with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Current Diabetes Reports. 2014;14:558.
16 Kangovi 2017 - Kangovi S, Mitra N, Grande D, et al. Community health worker support for disadvantaged patients with multiple chronic diseases: A randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Public Health. 2017;107(10):1660-1667.
17 Costa 2015 - Costa EF, Guerra PH, dos Santos TI, Florindo AA. Systematic review of physical activity promotion by health workers. Preventive Medicine. 2015;81:114-121.
18 Andrews 2004 - Andrews JO, Felton G, Wewers ME, Heath J. Use of community health workers in research with ethnic minority women. Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 2004;36(4):358-365.
19 Verhagen 2014 - Verhagen I, Steunenberg B, de Wit NJ, Ros WJG. Community health worker interventions to improve access to health care services for older adults from ethnic minorities: A systematic review. BMC Health Services Research. 2014;14:497.
20 Kennedy 2021 - Kennedy MA, Hatchell KE, DiMilia PR, et al. Community health worker interventions for older adults with complex health needs: A systematic review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2021;69(6):1670-1682.
21 Choi 2016 - Choi E, Heo GJ, Song Y, Han H. Community health worker perspectives on recruitment and retention of recent immigrant women in a randomized clinical trial. Family & Community Health. 2016;39(1):53-61.
22 Savas 2021 - Savas LS, Atkinson JS, Figueroa-Solis E, et al. A lay health worker intervention to improve breast and cervical cancer screening among Latinas in El Paso, Texas: A randomized control trial. Preventive Medicine. 2021;145:106446.
23 Scharff 2022 - Scharff D, Enard KR, Tao D, et al. Community health worker impact on knowledge, antenatal care, and birth outcomes: A systematic review. Maternal and Child Health. 2022;26:79-101.
24 AZ DHS-Health Start 2021 - McCue K, Sabo S, Wightman P, Jimenez D, Rumann S. Health Start program evaluation, 2006-2016: Final impact report. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Department of Health Services; 2021.
25 Cochrane-Lewin 2010 - Lewin S, Munabi-Babigumira S, Glenton C, et al. Lay health workers in primary and community health care for maternal and child health and the management of infectious diseases. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2010;(3):CD004015.
26 Wightman 2022 - Wightman P, McCue K, Sabo S, et al. Community health worker intervention improves early childhood vaccination rates: Results from a propensity-score matching evaluation. BMC Public Health. 2022;22:1854.
27 Raphael 2013 - Raphael JL, Rueda A, Lion KC, Giordano TP. The role of lay health workers in pediatric chronic disease: A systematic review. Academic Pediatrics. 2013;13(5):408-420.
28 Harvey 2022 - Harvey TD, Busch SH, Lin H, et al. Cost savings of a primary care program for individuals recently released from prison: A propensity-matched study. BMC Health Services Research. 2022;22:585.
29 Nyamathi 2022 - Nyamathi A, Salem BE, Shin SS, et al. Effect of a nurse-led community health worker intervention on latent tuberculosis medication completion among homeless adults. Nursing Research. 2021;70(6):433-442.
30 CDC-CHW 2015 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Addressing chronic disease through community health workers (CHW): A policy and systems-level approach. National Center for Chronic Disease and Health Promotion. 2015.
31 Allen 2015 - Allen C, Brownstein JN, Jayapaul-Philip B, Matos S, Mirambeau A. Strengthening the effectiveness of state-level community health worker initiatives through ambulatory care partnerships. Journal of Ambulatory Care Management. 2015;38(3):254-262.
32 Pittman 2015 - Pittman M, Sunderland A, Broderick A, Barnett K. Bringing community health workers into the mainstream of US health care. National Academy of Medicine. 2015:1-8.
33 Islam 2015 - Islam NS, Zanowiak JM, Riley L, et al. Characteristics of Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander community health worker programs: A systematic review. 2015;26(20):238-268.
34 Franklin 2015 - Franklin CM, Bernhardt JM, Palan Lopez R, Long-Middleton ER, Davis S. Interprofessional teamwork and collaboration between community health workers and healthcare teams: An integrative review. Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology. 2015.
35 CG-Attipoe-Dorcoo 2021 - Attipoe-Dorcoo S, Chattopadhyay SK, Verughese J, et al. Engaging community health workers to increase cancer screening: A Community Guide systematic economic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2021;60(4):e189-e197.
36 Heisler 2022 - Heisler M, Lapidos A, Kieffer E, et al. Impact on health care utilization and costs of a Medicaid community health worker program in Detroit, 2018–2020: A randomized program evaluation. American Journal of Public Health. 2022;112(5):766-775.
37 Barbero 2021 - Barbero C, Mason T, Rush C, et al. Processes for implementing community health worker workforce development initiatives. Frontiers in Public Health. 2021;9:659017.
38 CDC-CHW Certification - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Background on statewide community health worker (CHW) certification.
39 KFF-Haldar 2023 - Haldar S, Hinton E. State policies for expanding Medicaid coverage of community health worker (CHW) services. Menlo Park: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF); 2023.
40 MHP Salud-CHW National - MHP Salud. Community health workers: A national landscape.
41 US DHHS-Expand CHW - US Department of Health and Human Services (US DHHS). Press release: With new American Rescue Plan funding, HHS expands and strengthens the community and public health workforce. September 30, 2022.
42 CDC-CHW CCR - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Community health workers (CHW) for COVID Response and Resilient Communities (CCR). Overview and mission.
43 Envision Equity - Envision Equity. Community Health Worker (CHW) Training and Technical Assistance Center.
44 NIH-CHW Health Disparities - National Institutes of Health: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. CHW Health Disparities Initiative.
45 TCN-Home - Transitions Clinic Network (TCN). An innovative healthcare model for individuals returning to the community from incarceration.
46 TCN-CHWs - Transitions Clinic Network (TCN). Community health workers in the TCN.
47 RHIhub-CHW Innovation - Rural Health Information Hub (RHIhub). Community health workers in rural settings: Models and innovation.
48 UK-KY Homeplace - University of Kentucky (UK) College of Medicine. Center of Excellence in Rural Health: Kentucky Homeplace.
49 AK CHAP-About - Alaska Community Health Aide Program (AK CHAP). Alaska’s Health Aide Model.
50 NAU-Health Start - Northern Arizona University (NAU) Center for Health Equity Research. Arizona Health Start Program. Overview of the evaluation.
51 Strong Families AZ-Health Start - Strong Families AZ: Arizona’s Home Visiting Alliance. Arizona Health Start.
52 AzCHOW - Arizona Community Health Workers Association (AzCHOW). Douglas, AZ.
53 UNM-CHW ECHO - University of New Mexico (UNM) Health Sciences. Community health workers: Innovative care models. Project ECHO.
54 Lapidos 2022 - Lapidos A, Henderson J, Garlick J, et al. Integrating oral health into community health worker and peer provider certifications in Michigan: A community action report. Journal of Public Health Dentistry. 2022;82(1):123-127.
55 OCH-De Las Mias - One Community Health (OCH). One Community Health announces the acquisition of digital health platform De Las Mías. October 4, 2022.
56 Penn-IMPaCT - Penn Center for Community Health Workers. IMPaCT Community: Community health workers.
57 Wells 2011 - Wells KJ, Luque JS, Miladinovic B, et al. Do community health worker interventions improve rates of screening mammography in the United States? A systematic review. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 2011;20(8):1580-1598.
58 O’Keefe 2021 - O’Keefe VM, Cwik MF, Haroz EE, Barlow A. Increasing culturally responsive care and mental health equity with Indigenous community mental health workers. Psychological Services. 2021;18(1):84-92.
59 McCollum 2016 - McCollum R, Gomez W, Theobald S, Taegtmeyer M. How equitable are community health worker programmes and which programme features influence equity of community health worker services? A systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:419.
60 Perry 2014b - Perry HB, Zulliger R, Rogers MM. Community health workers in low-, middle-, and high-income countries: An overview of their history, recent evolution, and current effectiveness. Annual Review of Public Health. 2014;35:399-421.
61 Perry 2014 - Perry BL, Morris EW. Suspending progress: Collateral consequences of exclusionary punishment in public schools. American Sociological Review. 2014;79(6):1067-1087.
62 Urban-Bovbjerg 2013a - Bovbjerg RR, Eyster L, Ormond BA, Anderson T, Richardson E. The evolution, expansion, and effectiveness of community health workers. Washington, DC: Urban Institute; 2013.
63 Shah 2014 - Shah MK, Heisler M, Davis MM. Community health workers and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: An opportunity for a research, advocacy, and policy agenda. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. 2014;25(1):17-24.
64 RHIhub-CHW (Topics Page-FAQ) 2021 - Rural Health Information Hub (RHIhub). Community health workers in rural settings.
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