Job-sharing programs

Evidence Rating  
Evidence rating: Insufficient Evidence

Strategies with this rating have limited research documenting effects. These strategies need further research, often with stronger designs, to confirm effects.

Health Factors  
Decision Makers
Date last updated

Job-sharing is a flexible work arrangement in which a single full-time position is split between two part-time employees, and each part-time employee retains the rights and privileges of the full-time position. Employees receive the same benefits as a full-time employee, proportional to their hours worked. Such arrangements are generally initiated at the request of employees1.

What could this strategy improve?

Expected Benefits

Our evidence rating is based on the likelihood of achieving these outcomes:

  • Improved employee retention

  • Improved work-life balance

What does the research say about effectiveness?

There is insufficient evidence to determine whether job-sharing increases retention or work-life balance. Available evidence suggests that job-sharing programs may increase productivity and reduce turnover and absenteeism1. Job sharing may support work-life balance for women and older employees1, 2, 3, and is a suggested strategy to allow older workers to transition from full-time to part-time employment without retiring4. However, additional evidence is needed to determine effects.

How could this strategy impact health disparities? This strategy is rated no impact on disparities likely.
Implementation Examples

According to the 2016 National Study of Employers, 19% of organizations nationwide allowed some employees to share jobs, while only 2% of employers allowed most or all employees to job share5. Job-sharing is an option for many federal employees6.

Implementation Resources

1MFWF-Job sharing - 1 Million for Work Flexibility (1MFWF). Job sharing.


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1 Roche 1996 - Roche WK, Fynes B, Morrissey T. Working time and employment: A review of international evidence. International Labour Review. 1996;135(2):129-57.

2 Watton 2016 - Watton E, Stables S. The benefits of job sharing: a practice-based case study. In Flynn PM, Haynes K, Kilgour MA, eds., Overcoming challenges to gender equality in the workplace: leadership and innovation. Greenleaf Publishing; 2016:66-77.

3 Griffin 2014 - Griffin B, Vest K, Pohl S, Mazan J, Winkler S. Part-time and job-share careers among pharmacy practice faculty members. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 2014;78(3),1-6

4 Urban-Eyster 2008 - Eyster L, Johnson RW, Toder E. Current strategies to employ and retain older workers. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute; 2008.

5 SHRM-Matos 2017 - Matos K, Galinsky E, Bond JT. National Study of Employers. 2017.

6 US OPM-Job sharing - United States Office of Personnel Management (U.S. OPM). Hiring information: part-time & job sharing.