2023 National Findings Relevant Reading List

These resources represent relevant research and evidence for key topics and their connection to health in the 2023 National Findings Report and are intended to offer additional framing and context for the Report findings. Relevant readings were identified using an adapted approach for evidence and policy analysis as outlined in the What Works for Health methods. The resources offered here should not be considered exhaustive or comprehensive.  


American Hospital Association (AHA), Institute for Diversity and Health Equity (IDHE). Glossary of health equity terms. 

Bailey ZD, Krieger N, Agenor M, et al. Structural racism and health inequities in the USA.: Evidence and interventions. Lancet. 2017;389(10077):1453-1463. 

Hahn RA, Truman BI, Williams DR. Civil rights as determinants of public health and racial and ethnic health equity: Health care, education, employment, and housing in the United States. SSM Population Health. 2018;4:17-24. 

Jones CP. Systems of power, axes of inequity: Parallels, intersections, braiding the strands. Medical Care. 2014;52(10 Suppl 3):71-75.  

Jones JM. Confidence in U.S. institutions down; Average at new low. Gallup. 2022. 

Velasquez DE, Figueroa JF, Dawes DE. Health institutions and the political determinants of health. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2022;63(5):861-864.



Annenberg Public Policy Center (APPC). Americans’ civics knowledge drops on First Amendment and branches of government. University of Pennsylvania, Annenberg Public Policy Center; 2022.  

Blackwell AG. (2016). The curb-cut effect. Stanford Social Innovation Review. 2016;15(1), 28–33.  

Blatt D. Connecting communities: Libraries as invisible infrastructure. American Academy of Arts and Sciences; 2022.  

Center for Civic Education. What are civic life, politics, and government?  

ChangeLab Solutions. Governance that limits meaningful participation.  

CivXNow. Policy Menu Brief. Cambridge: iCIVICS; 2019.  

Cohn D, Passell JS. Key facts about the quality of the 2020 census. Pew Research Center; 2022.   

Coleman A, Federman S. Where do the states stand on Medicaid expansion? The Commonwealth Fund, 2022.  

County Health Rankings & Roadmaps. A digital disadvantage: Low broadband rates in urban, segregated pockets compound inequities.  

Election Infrastructure Initiative. 50 states of need: How we can fully fund our state and local election infrastructure.  

Gillard C, Culik H. Digital redlining, access, and privacy. Common Sense Media. 2016. 

Greenspan E, Mason R. Civic infrastructure: A model for civic asset reinvestment. Philadelphia: William Penn Foundation; 2017.  

Holt-Lunstad J, Smith TB, Layton JB. Social relationships and mortality risk: A meta-analytic review. PLoS Medicine. 2010; 7(7):e1000316. 

Kania J, Kramer M. The equity imperative in collective impact. Stanford Social Innovation Review. 2015. 

Kaufman JH, Diliberti MK, Yeung D, Kavanaugh J. Defining and measuring civic infrastructure. Santa Monica: RAND; 2022. 

Kirschenbaum J, Li M. Gerrymandering explained. New York: New York University Law School, Brennan Center for Justice; 2021.  

Lee MR. The protective effects of civic communities against all-cause mortality. Social Science & Medicine. 2010;70:1840-1846. 

Mapping inequality, redlining in new deal America. University of Richmond Digital Scholarship Lab. 

Mills CW, Ulmer MJ, Blair JM. Small business and civic welfare: Report of the smaller war plants corporation to the Special Committee to Study Problems of American Small Business. United States Senate. 1946.  

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM). Social isolation and loneliness in older adults: Opportunities for the health care system. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2020. 

Office of Minority Broadband Initiatives. Office of Minority Broadband Initiatives 2022 report. National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), U.S. Department of Commerce; 2022.  

Okonta P. Race-based political exclusion and social subjugation: Racial gerrymandering as a badge of slavery. Columbia Human Rights Law Review. 2018;49(2)254-296.  

Patrick S, Brady S. Building an intentional and inclusive civic infrastructure. Stanford Social Innovation Review. 2015.  

Poy S, Schuller S. Internet and voting in the Web 2.0 era: Evidence from a local broadband policy. CESifo. 2016: Working Paper 6129. 

Ramos AK, Suarez MC, Leon M, Trinidad N. Sense of community, participation, and life satisfaction among Hispanic immigrants in rural Nebraska. Social Sciences in Health. 2017;4:308-320.  

Schraufnagel S, Pomante MJ, Li Q. Cost of voting in the American states: 2020. Election Law Journal. 2020;19(4):503-509.  

Tausanovitch A, Gee E. How partisan gerrymandering limits access to health care. Washington, D.C.: Center for American Progress; 2020.  

Tolbert CM, Lyson TA, Irwin MD. Local capitalism, civic engagement, and socioeconomic well-being. Social Forces. 1988;77(2):401-427.  

Urban Libraries Council. Leadership brief: Libraries leading civic engagement. Washington, D.C.: Urban Libraries Council; 2017. 

Wiltse J. Swimming against segregation: The struggle to desegregate. Pennsylvania Legacies. 2010;10(2):12-17.  

Whitacre BE, Manlove JL. Broadband and civic engagement in rural areas: What matters? Community Development. 2016;47(5):700-717.  

Wolf T, Cea B, Percival K, Dennie MK, Fong C. Improving the census. New York: New York University Law, Brennan Center for Justice; 2022.  



Adler RP, Goggin J. What do we mean by “civic engagement”? Journal of Transformative Education. 2005;3(3):236-253.  

Casiday R, Kinsman E, Fisher C, Bambra C. Volunteering and health: What impact does it really have? Report to Volunteering England. London: National Council for Voluntary Organizations (NCVO); 2008. 

Center for Social Innovation (CSI). Compendium on civic engagement and population health. University of California Riverside Center for Social Innovation, University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute; 2021.  

Commission on the Practice of Democratic Citizenship. Our common purpose: Reinventing American democracy for the 21st century. Cambridge: American Academy of Arts and Sciences; 2020.  

Douwes R, Stuttaford M, London L. Social solidarity, human rights, and collective action: considerations in the implementation of the National Health Insurance in South Africa. Health and Human Rights Journal. 2018;20(2):185-196.  

Ehlinger EP, Nevarez CR. Safe and accessible voting: The role of public health. American Journal of Public Health. 2021;111(1):45-46. 

Grimm RT Jr, Dietz N. Where are America's volunteers? A look at America's widespread decline in volunteering in cities and states. Research Brief. College Park, MA: Do Good Institute, University of Maryland; 2018. 

Healthy Democracy, Healthy People. Health & democracy index. 2022. 

Jenkinson CE, Dickens AP, Jones K, et al. Is volunteering a public health intervention? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the health and survival of volunteers. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:773. 

Kim S, Kim C, Soon You M. Civic participation and self-rated health: A cross-national multi-level analysis using the World Value Survey. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health. 2015;48(1):18-27. 

Lead Local. Lead Local glossary: Community power. 

McGeeney K, Kriz B, Mullenax S, et al. 2020 census barriers, attitudes, and motivators study survey report. U.S. Department of Commerce, United States Census Bureau; 2019.  

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM). Civic engagement and civic infrastructure to advance health equity: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2022. 

National Conference on Citizenship (NCoC). Civic Health Initiative.  

Nelson C, Sloan J, Chandra A. Examining civic engagement links to health. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation; 2019.  

Qu H, Konrath S, Poulin M. Which types of giving are associated with reduced mortality risk among older adults? Personality and Individual Differences. 2020;154:109668. 

Rotolo T, Wilson J. Social heterogeneity and volunteering in U.S. Cities. Sociological Forum. 2014;29(2):429-452. 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services(U.S. DHHS), Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (OASH). Healthy People 2030. Civic participation. 

Yeung JWK, Zhang Z, Kim TY. Volunteering and health benefits in general adults: Cumulative effects and forms. BMC Public Health. 2018;18:8.