2022 National Findings Relevant Reading List

These resources represent relevant research and evidence for key topics and their connection to health in the 2022 National Findings Report and are intended to offer additional framing and context for the Report findings. Relevant readings were identified using an adapted approach for evidence and policy analysis as outlined in the What Works for Health methods. The resources offered here should not be considered exhaustive or comprehensive. 


Dubay L, Aarons J, Brown KS, Kenney GM. How risk of exposure to the coronavirus at work varies by race and ethnicity and how to protect the health and well-being of workers and their families. Washington, DC: Urban Institute; 2020.  

Murphy SL, Kochanek KD, Xu J, Arias E. Mortality in the United States, 2020. NCHS Data Brief No. 427. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS); 2021. 

Oladele CR, McKinney TL, Tolliver D, et al. The state of Black America and COVID-19: A two-year assessment. Washington, DC: Black Coalition Against COVID (BCAC); 2022.  

Pastor M, Ito J, Wander M, et al. A primer on community power, place, and structural change. Los Angeles: Equity Research Institute, University of Southern California-Dornsife; 2020.  

Economic security & living wage 

Braveman P, Acker J, Arkin E, et al. Wealth matters for health equity. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF); 2018. 

Gould E. State of working America wages 2019: A story of slow, uneven, and unequal wage growth over the last 40 years. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute (EPI); 2020.  

Spencer RA, Komro KA. Family economic security policies and child and family health. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. 2017;20:45-63. 

Thomas P. Miller & Associates. Prosperity through equity: Final report 2021. Indianapolis: Thomas P. Miller & Associates (TPMA); 2021.  

Gender pay gap 

Alon T, Doepke M, Olmstead-Rumsey J, Tertilt M. This time it’s different: The role of women’s employment in a pandemic recession. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). 2020: Working Paper 27660.  

England P, Levine A, Mishel E. Progress toward gender equality in the United States has slowed or stalled. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2020;117(13):6990-6997.  

Laster Pirtle WN, Wright T. Structural gendered racism revealed in pandemic times: Intersectional approaches to understanding race and gender health inequities in COVID-19. Gender & Society. 2021;35(2):168-179.  

Milner A, Kavanagh A, Scovelle AJ, et al. Gender equality and health in high-income countries: A systematic review of within-country indicators of gender equality in relation to health outcomes. Women’s Health Reports. 2021;2(1):113-123. 

Childcare cost burden 

Connell CM, Prinz RJ. The impact of childcare and parent-child interactions on school readiness and social skills development for low-income African American children. Journal of School Psychology. 2002;40(2):177-193.  

Lyonette C, Kaufman G, Crompton R. ’We both need to work’: Maternal employment, childcare and health care in Britain and the USA. Work, Employment and Society. 2011;25(1):34-50. 

Magnuson K, Waldfogel J. Delivering high-quality early childhood education and care to low-income children: How well is the US doing? In: Waldfogel J, Gambaro L, Stewart K, eds. An equal start? Providing quality early education and care for disadvantaged children. Bristol: Bristol University Press; 2014:183-218. 

Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB). Household Pulse Survey: Child care disruptions. Rockville, MD: Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), Health Resources & Services Administration (HRSA); 2021. 

School funding  

Baker BD, Di Carlo M, Schneider L, Weber M. The adequacy and fairness of state school finance systems: Key findings from the School Finance Indicators Database. Third Edition. Washington, DC: Albert Shanker Institute, Rutgers Graduate School of Education; 2021. 

Baker BD, Farrie D, Sciarra DG. Mind the gap: 20 years of progress and retrenchment in school funding and achievement gaps. Policy Information Report and ETS Research Report Series No. RR-16-15. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service (ETS); 2016.  

Bayer P, Blair PQ, Whaley K. Are we spending enough on teachers in the US? National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). 2021: Working Paper 28255.  

Chingos MM, Blagg K. Do poor kids get their fair share of school funding? Washington, DC: Urban Institute; 2017. 

Chingos MM, Blagg K. Making sense of state school funding policy. Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 2017. 

Kirabo Jackson C, Johnson RC, Persico C. The effects of school spending on educational and economic outcomes: Evidence from school finance reforms. The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 2016;131(1):157-218. 

Orfield G, Jarvie D. Black segregation matters: School resegregation and Black educational opportunity. Los Angeles: UCLA Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles (CRP); 2020. 

Ramsey S. The troubled history of American education after the Brown decision. The American Historian. Washington, DC: Organization of American Historians (OAH); 2017. 

Zhou T, Molfino T, Travers J. The cost of COVID: Understanding the full financial impact of COVID-19 on districts and schools. Watertown, MA: Education Resource Strategies (ERS); 2021.