Shared use agreements

Shared use, joint use, open use, or community use agreements allow public access to existing facilities by defining terms and conditions for sharing the costs and risks associated with expanding a property’s use. School districts, government entities, faith-based organizations, and private or nonprofit organizations may create shared use agreements to allow community access to their property before or after hours. Shared use agreements can be formal (i.e., based on a written, legal document) or informal (i.e., based on historical practice), and can be tailored to meet community needs (ChangeLab-Joint use). 

Expected Beneficial Outcomes (Rated)

  • Increased access to places for physical activity

Other Potential Beneficial Outcomes

  • Increased physical activity

  • Increased access to public resources

Evidence of Effectiveness

There is some evidence that shared use agreements increase opportunities for physical activity (NPAPVincent 2010Maddock 2008Lafleur 2013, Slater 2014*, ALR-Shulaker 2015). Such agreements are also a suggested strategy to increase physical activity levels (IOM-Government obesity prevention 2009*TFAH-Levi 2014CDC-Zoning physical activity). However, additional evidence is needed to confirm effects. 

By opening facilities to community members and linking youth with physical activity opportunities in school gyms, tracks and fields, community fitness and sports facilities, parks and playgrounds, shared use agreements increase access to places for physical activity (NPAP, AHRQ HCIE-Martin, FSUW-Shared use 2014). Shared use agreements may also increase physical activity levels, especially in low income communities (ALR-Spengler 2012, ALR-Disparities 2011NPAPMaddock 2008, CDC-JUA health equity). Establishing organized physical activity programs along with shared use agreements can substantially increase facilities’ use (Lafleur 2013).

Since these agreements use existing facilities, they are typically low cost ways to expand programs and services (Cooper 2008). In a North Carolina-based study, shared use agreements did not lead to significant increases in school operating costs, although facility maintenance and repairs may be higher over time due to increased use (Kanters 2014*). In Los Angeles, school districts’ shared use agreements have been associated with small increases in expenditures and very few unanticipated costs (FSUW-Shared use 2014).

California-based research offers seven steps for effective shared use partnership development, which include identifying needs and partners, building relationships and political support in the local community, formalizing partnerships, and monitoring the ongoing communication, progress and impact of the agreement (Cooper 2008). Shared use agreements may also increase access to libraries, performance art spaces, social services, and additional meeting, event and activity spaces (Vincent 2010).

Impact on Disparities

Likely to decrease disparities

Implementation Examples

As of 2014, Arkansas, California, Kansas, and Texas enacted legislation to enable or encourage shared use agreements for school facilities (NCSL Winterfeld-Obesity prevention 2014). The Arkansas Statewide Joint-Use Agreement Grant Program has funded 152 joint use agreements in 60 school districts since it started in 2009 (CDC-JUA spotlight AR).

Many cities, counties, and states use shared use agreements to expand access to places for physical activity, including New York City; Seattle (SRTSNP-Joint use); Lake Worth, Greenacres, and Palm Springs, Florida (ALBD-FL joint use); Fairfax County, Virginia (CDC-JUA spotlight VA); Hamilton County, Ohio (WeThrive-Community wellness); Pitt County, North Carolina (ALBD-Pitt County), California (SRTSNP-Joint use); and Mississippi (Mississippi Joint Use). As of 2012, formal shared use agreements are in approximately 62% of school districts, and are more common in large school districts, urban areas, and in the West compared with the Midwest, South, and Northeast (Everett Jones 2015).

Faith-based organizations across the country are also using shared use agreements to expand access to their recreational facilities and programs, as in North Carolina (ChangeLab-Congregation shared use 2014).

Implementation Resources

ChangeLab-Joint use - ChangeLab Solutions. Joint use.

ChangeLab-Joint use toolkit 2012 - ChangeLab Solutions, KaBOOM!, National Policy & Legal Analysis Network (NPLAN). Playing smart: Maximizing the potential of school and community property through joint use agreements: A national joint use toolkit. 2012.

CCS-Joint use - Center for Cities & Schools (CC&S). Joint use schools initiative: Partnerships and environments for student success. - Joint Use. Safe places to play and be active.

ALR-Joint use - Active Living Research (ALR). Joint use agreements.

AHA-VFHK toolkits - American Heart Association (AHA), Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF). Voices for healthy kids (VFHK): Toolkits to make the healthy choice the easy choice in the places where children live, learn and play.

CDC DNPAO-Data - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of Nutrition Physical Activity and Obesity (DNPAO). Nutrition, physical activity and obesity: Data, trends and maps online tool.

LHC-Rockeymoore 2014 - Rockeymoore M, Moscetti C, Fountain A. Rural Childhood Obesity Prevention Toolkit. Leadership for Healthy Communities (LHC), Center for Global Policy Solutions, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. 2014.

CDC-JUA health equity - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Joint use agreements (JUA): Why is this a health equity issue?

HOST-PA - Healthy Out-of-School Time (HOST) Coalition. Resources: Physical activity (PA).

WeThrive-Toolbox - WeThrive!, Hamilton County Public Health. Toolbox and resources used as part of the WeThrive! initiative.

Citations - Evidence

* Journal subscription may be required for access.

NPAP - National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP). Make the move.

Vincent 2010 - Vincent JM. Partnerships for joint use: Expanding the use of public school infrastructure to benefit students and communities. Berkeley: Center for Cities & Schools, University of California, Berkeley; 2010.

Maddock 2008 - Maddock J, Choy LB, Nett B, McGurk MD, Tamashiro R. Increasing access to places for physical activity through a joint use agreement: A case study in urban Honolulu. Preventing Chronic Disease. 2008;5(3):A91.

Lafleur 2013 - Lafleur M, Gonzalez E, Schwarte L, et al. Increasing physical activity in under-resourced communities through school-based, joint-use agreements, Los Angeles County, 2010-2012. Preventing Chronic Disease. 2013;10(6):E89.

Slater 2014* - Slater S, Chriqui J, Chaloupka FJ, Johnston L. Joint use policies: Are they related to adolescent behavior? Preventive Medicine. 2014;69:S37-S43.

ALR-Shulaker 2015 - Shulaker B, Ownby K. SPARK Parks: Monitoring the implementation and impact of schoolyards-turned-community parks. 2015 Active Living Research (ALR) Annual Conference. 2015.

IOM-Government obesity prevention 2009* - Institute of Medicine (IOM), National Research Council (NRC), Committee on Childhood Obesity Prevention Actions for Local Governments. Local government actions to prevent childhood obesity. (Parker L, Burns AC, Sanchez E, eds.). Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2009.

TFAH-Levi 2014 - Levi J, Segal L, St. Lauren R, Rayburn J. The state of obesity: Better policies for a healthier America 2014. Washington, DC: Trust for America's Health (TFAH); 2014.

CDC-Zoning physical activity - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Zoning to encourage physical activity.

AHRQ HCIE-Martin - Martin C. School system renovates high school track and promotes its availability to the community, leading to increased use by students and residents. Rockville: AHRQ Health Care Innovations Exchange.

FSUW-Shared use 2014 - Framework for Shared Use Workgroup (FSUW). Building the evidence: Creating a framework for assessing costs and impacts of shared use agreements. Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, ChangeLab Solutions, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Public Health Law Research. 2014.

ALR-Spengler 2012 - Spengler JO. Research brief: Promoting physical activity through the shared use of school and community recreational resources. Active Living Research (ALR); 2012.

ALR-Disparities 2011 - Active Living Research (ALR). Do all children have places to be active? Disparities in access to physical activity environments in racial and ethnic minority and lower-income communities. Princeton: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF); 2011.

CDC-JUA health equity - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Joint use agreements (JUA): Why is this a health equity issue?

Cooper 2008 - Cooper T, Vincent JM. Joint use school partnerships in California: Strategies to enhance schools and communities. Berkeley: Center for Cities & Schools (CC&S), Public Health Law & Policy (PHLP), University of California-Berkeley; 2008.

Kanters 2014* - Kanters MA, Bocarro N, Filardo M, et al. Shared use of school facilities with community organizations and afterschool physical activity program participation: A cost-benefit assessment. Journal of School Health. 2014;84(5):302-309.

Citations - Implementation Examples

* Journal subscription may be required for access.

NCSL Winterfeld-Obesity prevention 2014 - Winterfeld A. State actions to reduce and prevent childhood obesity in schools and communities: Summary and analysis of trends in legislation. National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL); 2014.

CDC-JUA spotlight AR - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Increasing physical activity through joint-use agreements spotlight: Arkansas.

SRTSNP-Joint use - Safe Routes to School National Partnership (SRTSNP). Shared use of school and community facilities: Addressing childhood obesity through shared school facilities.

ALBD-FL joint use - Active Living By Design (ALBD). Resources: Lake Worth, Greenacres, Palm Springs, FL: Creating open space through joint use.

CDC-JUA spotlight VA - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Increasing physical activity through joint-use agreements spotlight: Virginia.

WeThrive-Community wellness - WeThrive!, Hamilton County Public Health. WeThrive! Community wellness in action.

ALBD-Pitt County - Active Living By Design (ALBD). Resources: Pitt County, North Carolina.

Mississippi Joint Use - Mississippi Department of Education. Family and community involvement resources: Joint use agreements.

Everett Jones 2015 - Everett Jones S, Wendel AM. Characteristics of Joint Use Agreements in school districts in the United States: Findings from the school health policies and practices study, 2012. Preventing Chronic Disease. 2015;12:140560.

ChangeLab-Congregation shared use 2014 - ChangeLab Solutions, Community & Clinical Connections for Prevention & Health Branch North Carolina Division of Public Health. Congregation to community: Shared use by North Carolina faith-based organizations. 2014.

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