Preschool programs with family support services are center-based programs that support the cognitive and social development of low income children prior to kindergarten. These intensive programs usually include a combination of high quality preschool, parental education, and additional services such as home visiting, health, and family services. Examples of such programs include: Chicago Child-Parent Centers, HighScope Perry Preschool, and the Carolina Abecedarian Project.
Expected Beneficial Outcomes (Rated)
Increased academic achievement
Other Potential Beneficial Outcomes
Improved cognitive skills
Reduced delinquent behavior
Improved mental health
Increased healthy behaviors
Evidence of Effectiveness
There is strong evidence that preschool programs with family support services increase academic achievement among children from low income households (Manning 2010*, CG-TFR Education). Effects are strongest immediately following preschool, but can persist (Burger 2010*, CG-TFR Education), especially if combined with continued support in later school years (Brookings-Sawhill 2015). Additional research is needed to determine which program components (e.g., social services, health care services, parental involvement, meals served, etc.) have the greatest effect on children’s outcomes (Mathematica-Caronongan 2016, CG-TFR Education).
Participants in preschool programs with family support services have greater gains in cognitive skills and academic achievement than non-participants (Manning 2010*, CG-TFR Education). Program participation may also increase family well-being and social-emotional development, and reduce social deviance, teenage delinquent behavior (e.g., drug use, law breaking, gang involvement), and juvenile arrest rates (Manning 2010*). Preschool programs with family support services also appear to reduce obesity, and improve children’s mental health and social competence (D’Onise 2010a*). Programs support healthy behaviors as children age, but have no impact on chronic disease outcomes (D’Onise 2010*, Englund 2015*).
Chicago Child-Parent Centers (CPC) and the HighScope Perry (HSP) program are two examples of preschool programs with family support services that have been shown to improve academic achievement (Reynolds 2016*, Ou 2010*, Reynolds 2011*, PPN, CG-TFR Education). Cost-benefit analyses of these programs indicate substantial societal returns for the funds invested (Heckman 2010a*, Reynolds 2011a).
Impact on Disparities
Head Start, a federal program for children under 5 from low income families, provides preschool education and school readiness programming, as well as social, health, and other services. In 2015, the Office of Head Start distributed over $7.7 billion in grant funding to 1,700 local public and private agencies that offer Head Start services to their communities (Head Start, OHS-Head Start).
Educare schools are another example of preschool programs with family support services. Established in over 20 communities across the country, in urban, suburban, and rural areas, Educare schools provide early childhood education and family support services for children under 5 from low income families. Schools also help connect families with additional resources, such as health and mental health services, provided by community organizations (Educare).
Citations - Evidence
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Manning 2010* - Manning M, Homel R, Smith C. A meta-analysis of the effects of early developmental prevention programs in at-risk populations on non-health outcomes in adolescence. Children and Youth Services Review. 2010;32(4):506-19.
CG-TFR Education - The Guide to Community Preventive Services (The Community Guide). Task Force Recommends (TFR) Education Programs to Promote Health Equity.
Burger 2010* - Burger K. How does early childhood care and education affect cognitive development? An international review of the effects of early interventions for children from different social backgrounds. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 2010;25(2):140-65.
Brookings-Sawhill 2015 - Sawhill IV, Karpilow Q. How much could we improve children’s life chances by intervening early and often? Washington, DC: Center on Children and Families, Brookings Institution; 2015.
Mathematica-Caronongan 2016 - Caronongan P, Kirby G, Boller K, Modlin E, Lyskawa J. Assessing the implementation and cost of high quality early care and education: A review of the literature - OPRE Report 2016-31. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (US DHHS), Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation; 2016.
D’Onise 2010a* - D’Onise K, Lynch JW, Sawyer MG, McDermott RA. Can preschool improve child health outcomes? A systematic review. Social Science & Medicine. 2010;70(9):1423–1440.
D’Onise 2010* - D’Onise K, McDermott RA, Lynch JW. Does attendance at preschool affect adult health? A systematic review. Public Health. 2010;124(9):500–511.
Englund 2015* - Englund MM, White B, Reynolds AJ, Schweinhart LJ, Campbell FA. Health outcomes of the Abecedarian, Child–Parent Center, and HighScope Perry Preschool programs. In Reynolds AJ, Rolnick AJ, Temple JA, eds. Health and Education in Early Childhood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2015:257-292.
Reynolds 2016* - Reynolds AJ, Richardson BA, Hayakawa M, Englund MM, Ou SR. Multi-site expansion of an early childhood intervention and school readiness. Pediatrics. 2016;138(1):e20154587.
Ou 2010* - Ou SR, Reynolds AJ. Mechanisms of effects of an early intervention program on educational attainment: A gender subgroup analysis. Children and Youth Services Review. 2010;32(8):1064-76.
Reynolds 2011* - Reynolds AJ, Temple JA, Ou SR, Arteaga IA, White BAB. School-based early childhood education and age-28 well-being: Effects by timing, dosage, and subgroups. Science. 2011;333(6040):360-4.
PPN - Promising Practices Network (PPN). On children, families and communities.
Heckman 2010a* - Heckman JJ, Moon SH, Pinto R, Savelyev PA, Yavitz A. The rate of return to the HighScope Perry preschool program. Journal of Public Economics. 2010;94(1-2):114-28.
Reynolds 2011a - Reynolds AJ, Temple JA, White BAB, Ou SR, Robertson DL. Age 26 cost-benefit analysis of the child-parent center early education program. Child Development. 2011;82(1):379-404.
Citations - Implementation Examples
* Journal subscription may be required for access.
Head Start - Head Start. An office of the Administration for Children and Families. Early childhood learning & knowledge center (ECLKC).
OHS-Head Start - Office of Head Start (OHS). Head Start: What we do.
Educare - Educare. The Educare model: Our approach and our schools.
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