Chicago Child-Parent Centers (CPC) provide preschool education and comprehensive family support to children from low income families. Classes are small, allowing teachers to use a child-centered, individualized approach. Children also receive free breakfast and lunch daily, and vision and hearing screening upon enrollment. Parents are required to participate at least half a day per week. Staff conduct home visits and refer families to social service agencies as needed. CPC uses Title I funds and operates through the Chicago Public School system (CPS-CPC, PPN). The program started in 1967 at four sites. As of 2016, CPC programs operate in 24 centers; 13 of those centers offer the primary-grade program from 1st-3rd grade in addition to the preschool program (UMN-CPC).
Expected Beneficial Outcomes (Rated)
Increased academic achievement
Other Potential Beneficial Outcomes
Increased high school graduation
Improved cognitive skills
Increased school readiness
Increased parent engagement
Reduced child maltreatment
Evidence of Effectiveness
There is strong evidence that Chicago Child-Parent Centers (CPC) improve academic achievement among children from low income families (Reynolds 2016*, Ou 2010*, Reynolds 2011*, PPN). CPC can also increase earnings (Reynolds 2011*, Reynolds 2011a), reduce drug use (Reynolds 2011*, Hayakawa 2016*), and reduce crime (Reynolds 2011*, Reynolds 2011a, PPN) in adulthood, especially among children who participate for two or more years (Arteaga 2014*).
CPC improves cognitive skills, socio-emotional development, kindergarten readiness, and reading and math skills, while reducing grade retention and special education usage among participants (Reynolds 2016*, PPN). CPC increases parental engagement during and after program completion (Reynolds 2016*, Hayakawa 2016*), which has been linked to increased student motivation and school achievement (Hayakawa 2013), as well as reduced adolescent problem behaviors and substance use (Hayakawa 2016*). Participating in CPC also increases high school graduation rates (Reynolds 2011*, Ou 2010*, PPN). CPC can reduce child maltreatment and neglect (Mersky 2011*), improve participants’ health behaviors (Englund 2015*), and overall physical health (Reynolds 2016*). By age 28, CPC participants earn moderately more than non-participating peers (Reynolds 2011*, Reynolds 2011a).
CPC has the greatest effects for boys and high-risk children (Temple 2010, Ou 2010*, Reynolds 2011*), though girls may be more likely to graduate when they participate in the school age intervention (Reynolds 2011a). Children who participate in the full-day preschool program have greater gains in school readiness and better attendance than those who participate part-time (Reynolds 2014*).
CPC costs about $5600 per child per year for the preschool component, and $2000 per year for the supplementary school age component. Cost-benefit analysis indicates that CPC’s preschool component yields $10.83 in societal benefits per dollar spent, primarily through reduced crime and increased earnings and tax revenues, and the school age component yields $3.97 per dollar invested (Reynolds 2011a).
Impact on Disparities
Private investors, philanthropists, universities, government agencies, and the Chicago school district partnered to leverage social-impact borrowing, which ties repayment to the success of early interventions, to support expansion of CPC programs without raising taxes or reducing other expenditures. This partnership uses scores on kindergarten readiness, third grade literacy, and special education placements for children attending CPC to measure success (Temple 2015*, Sanchez 2016). The project also won a federal grant in 2011 that supports CPC program expansion to 23 sites in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Minnesota (CPS-CPC, CEHD 2011, Harris 2012).
Many communities have programs or schools providing preschool education, and state legislatures can support the adoption of the CPC education model (NCSL-Child maltreatment 2014).
Citations - Evidence
* Journal subscription may be required for access.
Reynolds 2016* - Reynolds AJ, Richardson BA, Hayakawa M, Englund MM, Ou SR. Multi-site expansion of an early childhood intervention and school readiness. Pediatrics. 2016;138(1):e20154587.
Ou 2010* - Ou SR, Reynolds AJ. Mechanisms of effects of an early intervention program on educational attainment: A gender subgroup analysis. Children and Youth Services Review. 2010;32(8):1064-76.
Reynolds 2011* - Reynolds AJ, Temple JA, Ou SR, Arteaga IA, White BAB. School-based early childhood education and age-28 well-being: Effects by timing, dosage, and subgroups. Science. 2011;333(6040):360-4.
PPN - Promising Practices Network (PPN). On children, families and communities.
Reynolds 2011a - Reynolds AJ, Temple JA, White BAB, Ou SR, Robertson DL. Age 26 cost-benefit analysis of the child-parent center early education program. Child Development. 2011;82(1):379-404.
Hayakawa 2016* - Hayakawa M, Giovanelli A, Englund MM, Reynolds AJ. Not just academics: Paths of longitudinal effects from parent involvement to substance abuse in emerging adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2016;58(4):433–439.
Arteaga 2014* - Arteaga I, Humpage S, Reynolds AJ, Temple JA. One year of preschool or two: Is it important for adult outcomes? Economics of Education Review. 2014;40:221–237.
Hayakawa 2013 - Hayakawa M, Englund MM, Warner-Richter M, Reynolds AJ. Early parent involvement and school achievement: A longitudinal path analysis. NHSA Dialog. 2013;16(1):200–204.
Mersky 2011* - Mersky JP, Topitzes JD, Reynolds AJ. Maltreatment prevention through early childhood intervention: A confirmatory evaluation of the Chicago Child-Parent Center preschool program. Children and Youth Services Review. 2011;33(8):1454-63.
Englund 2015* - Englund MM, White B, Reynolds AJ, Schweinhart LJ, Campbell FA. Health outcomes of the Abecedarian, Child–Parent Center, and HighScope Perry Preschool programs. In Reynolds AJ, Rolnick AJ, Temple JA, eds. Health and Education in Early Childhood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2015:257-292.
Temple 2010 - Temple JA, Reynolds AJ, Arteaga I. Low birth weight, preschool education, and school remediation. Education and Urban Society. 2010;42(6):705-29.
Reynolds 2014* - Reynolds AJ, Richardson BA, Hayakawa M, et al. Association of a full-day vs part-day preschool intervention with school readiness, attendance, and parent involvement. The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). 2014;312(20):2126–2134.
Citations - Implementation Examples
* Journal subscription may be required for access.
Temple 2015* - Temple JA, Reynolds AJ. Using social-impact borrowing to expand preschool-to-third grade programs in urban schools. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR). 2015;20(4):281–292.
Sanchez 2016 - Sanchez M. Child-parent centers boast strong results for kids, investors. Catalyst Chicago. 2016.
CPS-CPC - Chicago Public Schools (CPS). Child parent center (CPC).
CEHD 2011 - University of Minnesota College Education+Human Development (CEHD). Federal $15M grant supports one of the most comprehensive childhood education programs in the nation.
Harris 2012 - Harris R. Child-parent centers to expand. Catalyst Chicago. 2012.
NCSL-Child maltreatment 2014 - National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Preventing child maltreatment: Defining the problem, discussing solutions. 2014.
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