Loading interactive model…


Percentage of population under age 65 without health insurance. The 2024 Annual Data Release used data from 2021 for this measure.

Lack of health insurance coverage is a significant barrier to accessing needed health care and to maintaining financial security. A report from the Kaiser Family Foundation on access to healthcare found that "Going without coverage can have serious health consequences for the uninsured because they receive less preventative care, and delayed care often results in serious illness or other health problems. Being uninsured can also have serious financial consequences, with many unable to pay their medical bills, resulting in medical debt."1

Find strategies to address Uninsured

Data and methods

Data Source

Small Area Health Insurance Estimates

The US Census Bureau's Small Area Health Insurance Estimates (SAHIE) program produces estimates of health insurance coverage for all states and counties. In July 2005, SAHIE released the first nationwide set of county-level estimates on the number of people without health insurance coverage for all ages and those under 18 years old. SAHIE releases estimates of health insurance coverage by age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and income categories at the state level and by age, sex, and income categories at the county level.

Website to download data
For more detailed methodological information

Key Measure Methods

Uninsured is a percentage

Uninsured is the percentage of the population under age 65 without health insurance coverage. A person is uninsured if they are currently not covered by insurance through a current/former employer or union, an insurance company, Medicare, Medicaid, Medical Assistance, a government-assistance plan for those with low incomes or disability, TRICARE or other military health care, Indian Health Services, Veterans Affairs, or any other health insurance or health coverage plan.

Uninsured is created using statistical modeling

Our Uninsured measure is based on one year of survey data and is created using complex statistical modeling by The Small Area Health Insurance Estimates. Modeling generates more stable estimates for places with small numbers of residents or populations.

There are also drawbacks to using modeled data. The smaller the population or sample size of a county, the more the estimates are derived from the model itself and the less they are based on the actual rates. Models make statistical assumptions about relationships that may not hold in all cases. Finally, there is no perfect model and each model generally has limitations specific to its methods.

Caution should be used when comparing these estimates across states

The data source uses modelling, and it is not clear if the model accounts for state-level effects.  


The numerator is the number of people currently uninsured in the county under the age of 65.


The denominator is the number of people in the county under age 65.

Can This Measure Be Used to Track Progress

This measure can be used to track progress with some caveats. Data on all types of insurance plans are combined, making it difficult to parse changes in specific types of insurance. In order to better understand and validate modeled estimates, it can be helpful to supplement with additional local data.

Finding More Data

Disaggregation means breaking data down into smaller, meaningful subgroups. Disaggregated data are often broken down by characteristics of people or where they live. Disaggregated data can reveal inequalities that are otherwise hidden. These data can be disaggregated by:

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Race
  • Income
  • Subcounty Area

We recommend starting with the Small Area Health Insurance Estimates website, which contains information on insurance by race, ethnicity, age, income, and gender for counties. In addition, the Community Health Needs Assessment Report has a variety of data available, including health insurance by gender, age group, race/ethnicity at the county-level, as well as a census-tract level map. These data are available by clicking “view tool,” selecting a location, selecting your indicators (insurance is under Social & Economic Factors), and clicking on reports. 


1 Foutz J, Squires E, Garfield R, Damico A. The uninsured: A primer - key facts about health insurance and the uninsured under the Affordable Care Act. San Francisco: Kaiser Family Foundation; 2017.

Find strategies in What Works for Health