Drug overdose deaths*
Number of drug poisoning deaths per 100,000 population.
The 2019 County Health Rankings used data from 2015-2017 for this measure.
Reason for Including
Drug overdose deaths are a leading contributor to premature death and are largely preventable. Currently, the United States is experiencing an epidemic of drug overdose deaths. Since 2000, the rate of drug overdose deaths has increased by 137 percent nationwide. Opioids contribute largely to drug overdose deaths; since 2000, there has been a 200 percent increase in deaths involving opioids (opioid pain relievers and heroin).
Key Measure Methods
Drug Overdose Deaths is a Rate
Rates measure the number of events (i.e., deaths, births, etc.) in a given time period (generally one or more years) divided by the average number of people at risk during that period. Rates help us compare health data across counties with different population sizes. Drug Overdose Deaths is the number of deaths due to drug poisoning per 100,000 population.
Deaths are Counted in the County of Residence for the Person Who Died, Rather than the County Where the Death Occurred
It is important to note that deaths are counted in the county of residence of the deceased. So, even if a drug overdose death occurred across the state, the death is counted in the home county of the individual who died.
Drug Overdose Death is a Rare Event (statistically speaking)
While Drug Overdose Deaths is an important indicator of the size of prescription and illicit drug use, small numbers of death can result in unreliable and suppressed estimates at the county level, even with multiple years of combined data.
Some Data are Suppressed
A missing value is reported for counties with fewer than 10 drug poisoning deaths in the time frame.
The numerator includes deaths from accidental, intentional, and undetermined drug poisoning by and exposure to: 1) nonopioid analgesics, antipyretics and antirheumatics, 2) antiepileptic, sedative-hypnotic, antiparkinsonism and psychotropic drugs, not elsewhere classified, 3) narcotics and psychodysleptics [hallucinogens], not elsewhere classified, 4) other drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system, and 5) other and unspecified drugs, medicaments and biological substances, over a 3-year period. ICD-10 codes used include X40-X44, X60-X64, X85, and Y10-Y14.
The denominator is the aggregate annual population over the 3-year period.
Can This Measure Be Used to Track Progress
This measure can be used to measure progress with some caveats. It is important to note that the estimate provided in the County Health Rankings is a 3-year average. However, in most counties, it is relatively simple to obtain single year estimates from the resource included below. Drug Overdose Deaths data can also be further broken down by year, intent, and drug type. These breakdowns could help measure the impact of interventions specific to drug overdose prevention.
Years of Data Used
CDC WONDER mortality data
The Compressed Mortality File (CMF) is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years 1968-2017. Compressed Mortality data are updated annually. The number of deaths, crude death rates and age-adjusted death rates can be obtained by place of residence (total U.S., Census region, Census division, state, and county), age group, race (years 1968-1998: White, Black, and Other; years 1999-present: American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, Black or African American, and White), Hispanic origin (years 1968-1998: not available; years 1999-present: Hispanic or Latino, not Hispanic or Latino, Not Stated), gender, year of death, underlying cause of death (years 1968-1978: 4 digit ICD-8 codes and 69 cause-of-death recode; years 1979-1998: 4-digit ICD-9 codes and 72 cause-of-death recode; years 1999-present: 4-digit ICD-10 codes and 113 cause-of-death recode), and urbanization level of residence (years 1968-1998: not available; years 1999-present: per the 2006 or the 2013 NCHS Urban-Rural Classification Scheme for Counties).
We recommend starting with the CDC Wonder database, which contains information on drug overdose rates by race, ethnicity, age, gender, geography, and more. Rates can be exported as raw or age-adjusted. Small counties might need to combine multiple years of data to see rates, as CDC suppresses any rates when there are fewer than 10 deaths.
In addition, many states support databases of drug-related hospitalizations or emergency department visits. You can find links to these databases in State-Specific Data Sources.
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Increases in Drug and Opioid Overdose Deaths — United States, 2000–2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016; 64(50);1378-82.