County Health Rankings Model

Mental Health Providers

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Use County Health Rankings’ model of health to explore the measures that influence how long and how well we live.

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About

Ratio of population to mental health providers. The 2022 County Health Rankings used data from 2021 for this measure.

Access to care requires not only financial coverage, but also access to providers. Nearly thirty percent of the population lives in a county designated as a Mental Health Professional Shortage Area.[1] As the mental health parity aspects of the Affordable Care Act create increased coverage for mental health services, many anticipate increased workforce shortages. 

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Data and methods

Data Source

CMS, National Provider Identification

The NPI Registry enables you to search for a provider's National Plan and Provider Enumeration System (NPPES) information. All information produced by the NPI Registry is provided in accordance with the NPPES Data Dissemination Notice. Information in the NPI Registry is updated daily. You may run simple queries to retrieve this read-only data. For example, users may search for a provider by the NPI or legal business name.

Website to download data
For more detailed methodological information

Key Measure Methods

Mental Health Providers is a ratio

Mental Health Providers is the ratio of the population to mental health providers. The ratio represents the number of individuals served by one mental health provider in a county, if the population was equally distributed across providers. For example, if a county has a population of 50,000 and has 20 mental health providers, their ratio would be: 2,500:1. The value on the right side of the ratio is always 1 or 0; 1 indicates that there is at least one mental health provider in the county, and zero indicates there are no registered mental health providers in the county.

The method for calculating Mental Health Providers has changed

In 2015, marriage and family therapists and mental health providers that treat alcohol and other drug abuse were added to this measure.

Mental Health Providers has been corrected

We discovered an error in our method for identifying mental health providers in 2014-2016: we were including organizations as well as individual providers in each county. The correct estimates of the ratios for Mental Health Providers are now available on our website for 2015 and 2016 and in the downloadable data files. Unfortunately, the raw data file used to calculate Mental Health Providers for the 2014 Rankings is not available at this time, so corrections cannot be provided.

Some data are suppressed

A missing value is reported for counties with population greater than 1,000 and 0 mental health providers.

Measure limitations

These data come from the National Provider Identification data file, which has some limitations. Providers who transmit electronic health records are required to obtain an identification number, but very small providers may not obtain a number. While providers have the option of deactivating their identification number, some mental health professionals included in this list may no longer be practicing or accepting new patients. This may result in an overestimate of active mental health professionals in some communities. It is also true that mental health providers may be registered with an address in one county, while practicing in another county.

Left side of ratio

The left side of the ratio is the total county population.

Right side of ratio

The right side of the ratio is the number of mental health providers in a county. Mental health providers are defined as psychiatrists, psychologists, licensed clinical social workers, counselors, marriage and family therapists, mental health providers that treat alcohol and other drug abuse, and advanced practice nurses specializing in mental health care.

Can This Measure Be Used to Track Progress

This measure should not be used to track progress. There are concerns that many providers that are no longer practicing are not deactivated, resulting in an overestimate in the number of practicing providers. The methodology for this measure has changed. In order to better understand this estimate, confirming this data with additional sources of data at the local level is particularly valuable. Note: The correct estimates of the ratios for Mental Health Providers are now available on our website for 2015 and 2016 and in the downloadable data files. Unfortunately, the raw data file used to calculate Mental Health Providers for the 2014 Rankings is not available at this time, so corrections cannot be provided.

Digging Deeper

Age0
Gender1
Race0
Education0
Income0
Subcounty Area1

It is difficult to stratify this measure by population demographics or locale.

References

[1] Designated Health Professional Shortage Areas Statistics. First Quarter of Fiscal Year 2021. Bureau of Health Workforce. Health Resources and Service Administration (HRSA). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. December 31, 2020. https://data.hrsa.gov/Default/GenerateHPSAQuarterlyReport

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