Early Head Start (EHS)

Early Head Start (EHS) is a federally funded program for low income pregnant women, parents, and children aged 0 to 3. The program’s comprehensive approach includes child care, parent education, health and mental health services, and family support. EHS programs can be home-based, center-based, or offer a mix of home and center services (ECLKC-EHS).

Expected Beneficial Outcomes (Rated)

  • Improved cognitive skills

  • Improved social emotional skills

Other Potential Beneficial Outcomes

  • Improved family functioning

  • Reduced aggression

  • Reduced stress

  • Improved parenting

  • Increased school readiness

  • Increased family income

  • Reduced hospital utilization

  • Increased access to oral health care

Evidence of Effectiveness

There is strong evidence that Early Head Start (EHS) increases participating children’s cognitive and social emotional skills (Vogel 2013, Chazan-Cohen 2013, , PPN). Small social emotional effects appear to continue through age 10 (Mathematica-Vogel 2010).

EHS modestly improves attention and focus (Vogel 2013), language (Chazan-Cohen 2013), cognitive and social emotional skills such as social functioning and emotional regulation (, Vogel 2013, PPN), and reduces aggressive behavior among participating children (Vogel 2013). Enhanced language skills can help children better control themselves and regulate emotions, reducing parental stress and improving parent-child interactions ().

EHS can improve parenting (Vogel 2013, , ), parent supportiveness (, ), engagement (), and emotional responsiveness (), and increase use of positive discipline (Chazan-Cohen 2013) while reducing spanking (). EHS can also bolster parents’ ability to cognitively stimulate and positively interact with children despite high stress (). EHS can lead parents to create home environments that support learning (, Vogel 2013, ) and enroll their children in formal pre-kindergarten programs (). Mothers who receive home-based infant mental health services through EHS report improved family functioning and relationships, especially improved coping skills and reduced stress; these effects last after program completion, in some cases for several years (). Early program evaluations suggest that EHS participation may reduce child maltreatment, especially physical and sexual abuse (Chazen-Cohen 2015, ). In some circumstances, EHS can help children develop vocabulary despite family stress ().

EHS participation increases the likelihood of children having dental care visits for prevention and treatment (, ). Among Latino families, EHS programs that include health education decrease pediatric emergency room visits and inappropriate use of over-the-counter medications for children under age 2 (Stockwell 2014).

Parent participants in home-based EHS have demonstrated increases in school or job training participation and sustained improvements in income (Chazan-Cohen 2013). Income effects can be stronger in programs that offer more child and family services ().

EHS can be especially effective for black participants (PPN, , Raikes 2013). Black parent participants are more likely to be employed or in school than their peers, and report a small reduction in their children’s hospitalization needs (). Some outcomes may also last longer for black participants than for white participants (Raikes 2013). EHS can improve vocabulary for English as a Second Language (ESL) speakers by the time they enter kindergarten (Vogel 2013, Raikes 2013).

Research identifies 23 EHS program practices that can increase engagement with Latino fathers. Practices include hiring bilingual staff and men, teaching fatherhood skills, personally contacting fathers to convey that the program is for fathers as well as mothers, and increasing service hours and home visits during times when fathers are available such as evenings and weekends ().  

Impact on Disparities

Likely to decrease disparities

Implementation Examples

In 2013-14, 145,000 children were enrolled in Early Head Start (EHS), about 4% of children ages 0-3 who live in poverty (Child Trends-Head Start 2015).

Implementation Resources

EHS NRC - Early Head Start National Resource Center (EHS NRC).

OPRE-Baby FACES - Office of Planning, Research & Evaluation (OPRE), Administration for Children & Families, US Department of Health & Human Services. Early Head Start family and child experiences study (Baby FACES), 2007-2020.

CCEE Research Connections-EHS 2015 - Child Care & Early Education (CCEE) Research Connections. Basic information for Early Head Start (EHS)-Childcare Partnerships: Fact sheets and briefs. 2015.

Citations - Evidence

* Journal subscription may be required for access.

PPN - Promising Practices Network (PPN). On children, families and communities.

Ayoub 2011* - Ayoub C, Mastergeorge AM, Vallotton CD. Developmental pathways to integrated social skills: The roles of parenting and early intervention. Child Development. 2011;82(2):583-600.

Mathematica-Vogel 2010 - Vogel CA, Xue Y, Moiduddin EM, Carlson B. Early head start children in grade 5: Long-term follow-up of the early head start research and evaluation project study sample. Princeton: Mathematica Policy Research for the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE), Administration for Children and Families (ACF), US Department of Health and Human Services (US DHHS); 2010: OPRE 2011-8.

Vogel 2013 - Vogel C, Brooks-Gunn J, Martin A, Klute MM. Impacts of Early Head Start participation on child and parent outcomes at ages 2, 3, and 5. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. 2013;78(1):36–63.

Harden 2012* - Harden BJ, Chazan-Cohen R, Raikes H, Vogel C. Early Head Start home visitation: The role of implementation in bolstering program benefits. Journal of Community Psychology. 2012;40(4):438–55.

Chazan-Cohen 2013 - Chazan-Cohen R, Raikes HH, Vogel C. Program subgroups: Patterns of impacts for home-based, center-based, and mixed-approach programs. Monograph of the Society for Research in Child Development. 2013;78(1):93–109.

Vallotton 2011* - Vallotton CD, Harewood T, Ayoub CA, et al. Buffering boys and boosting girls. The protective and promotive effects of Early Head Start for children's expressive language in the context of parenting stress. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 2012;27(4):695-707.

Raikes 2013 - Raikes HH, Vogel C, Love JM. IV. Family subgroups and impacts at age 2, 3, and 5: Variability by race/ethnicity and demographic risk. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. 2013;78(1):64-92.

Harden 2012a* - Harden BJ, Sandstrom H, Chazen-Cohen R. Early Head Start and African American families: Impacts and mechanisms of child outcomes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 2012;27(4):572-81.

Mckelvey 2015* - Mckelvey L, Schiffman RF, Brophy-Herb HE, et al. Examining long-term effects of an infant mental health home-based early head start program on family strengths and resilience. Infant Mental Health Journal. 2015;36(4):353-365.

Mortensen 2014* - Mortensen JA, Mastergeorge AM. A meta-analytic review of relationship-based interventions for low-income families with infants and toddlers: Facilitating supportive parent–child interactions. Infant Mental Health Journal. 2014;35(4):336-353.

Chazen-Cohen 2015 - Chazan-Cohen R, Green BL, Ayoub C, et al. Research-to-practice brief: Promising evidence that early head start can prevent child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect Prevention. 2015;1.

Green 2014a* - Green BL, Ayoub C, Bartlett JD, et al. The effect of early head start on child welfare system involvement: A first look at longitudinal child maltreatment outcomes. Children and Youth Services Review. 2014;42:127-135.

Acevedo-Polakovich 2017* - Acevedo-Polakovich ID, Spring HE, Stacy ST, Nordquist EA, Normand MM. Engaging Latino fathers into early head start: A review of the literature. Children and Youth Services Review. 2017;82:347-353.

Burgette 2017* - Burgette JM, Preisser JS, Weinberger M, et al. Impact of early head start in North Carolina on dental care use among children younger than 3 years. American Journal of Public Health. 2017;107(4):614-620.

Burgette 2017a* - Burgette JM, Preisser JS, Weinberger M, et al. Enrollment in early head start and oral health-related quality of life. Quality of Life Research. 2017;26(10):2607-2618.

Stockwell 2014 - Stockwell MS, Catallozzi M, Larson E, et al. Effect of a URI-related educational intervention in early head start on ED visits. Pediatrics. 2014;133(5):e1233-e1240.

Raikes 2014* - Raikes HH, Roggman LA, Peterson CA, et al. Theories of change and outcomes in home-based early head start programs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 2014;29(4):574-585.

Citations - Implementation Examples

* Journal subscription may be required for access.

Child Trends-Head Start 2015 - Child Trends Databank. Head Start; 2015.

Date Last Updated

Dec 12, 2018