Community centers are public venues where community members go for a variety of reasons, including socializing, participating in recreational or educational activities, gaining information, and seeking counseling or support services. Community centers house a variety of programs, and can be open to everyone in a community or only to a particular sub-population, such as seniors, youth, or immigrants.
Expected Beneficial Outcomes (Rated)
Improved social networks
Evidence of Effectiveness
Engaging community members in community center activities is a suggested strategy to strengthen social ties and reduce isolation among community members (ILR-Ottmann 2006, Glover TD. The 'community' center and the social construction of citizenship. Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal. 2004;26(1):63–83.
Link to original source (journal subscription may be required for access), RAND-London 2006, Lauer 2007). However, additional evidence is needed to confirm effects.
Community technology centers, community centers that emphasize technology access, are associated with positive youth development and strong peer-to-peer relationships, especially among minority youth in low income families (RAND-London 2006). In a Boston-based study, neighborhoods with a low density of community centers and recreation facilities were shown to have lower median incomes and larger minority populations than neighborhoods with a higher density of facilities (Hannon 2006). Establishing community centers may help reduce disparities in access to services and recreational facilities.
Impact on Disparities
Likely to decrease disparities
Community centers are common throughout the US, especially in urban and suburban areas. Community centers can be run by the government, by local non-profit organizations, or by faith-based groups (e.g., Boston’s BCYF, Milwaukee’s Walnut Way, the YMCA, or the JCC).
Community centers can house programs that improve the health and well-being of community members, such as Stanford GEMS, the Early Risers Conduct Problems Prevention Program, and the Arlanza Initiative (Robinson 2010, Bloomquist ML, August GJ, Lee SS, Piehler TF, Jensen M. Parent participation within community center or in-home outreach delivery models of the early risers conduct problems prevention program. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2012;21(3):368-83.
Link to original source (journal subscription may be required for access), CDC-Community center).
CTCNet-Stone 2003 - Stone A. Center start-up manual. Cambridge: Community Technology Centers’ Network (CTCNet); 2003.
Innovation Center 2001 - Innovation Center for Community & Youth Development, National 4-H Council. Building community: A tool kit for youth & adults in charting assets and creating change. Takoma Park: Innovation Center for Community & Youth Development; 2001.
HOST-PA - Healthy Out-of-School Time (HOST) Coalition. Resources: Physical activity (PA).
NISC - National Institute of Senior Centers (NISC). Supporting the nation's senior centers.
Citations - Evidence
* Journal subscription may be required for access.
Lauer 2007 - Lauer SR, Yan MC. Neighbourhood houses and bridging social ties. Metropolis British Columbia (MBC) Centre of Excellence for Research on Immigration and Diversity. 2007: Working Paper 07-07.
RAND-London 2006 - London RA, Servon LJ, Rosner R, Wallace A. The role of community technology centers in youth skill-building and empowerment. Santa Cruz: University of California Santa Cruz; 2006.
ILR-Ottmann 2006 - Ottmann G, Dickson J, Wright P. Social connectedness and health: A literature review. Ithaca: Cornell University, School of Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR); 2006.
Glover 2004* - Glover TD. The 'community' center and the social construction of citizenship. Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal. 2004;26(1):63–83.
Hannon 2006 - Hannon C, Cradock A, Gortmaker SL, et al. Play across Boston: A community initiative to reduce disparities in access to after-school physical activity programs for inner-city youths. Preventing Chronic Disease. 2006;3(3):A100.
Citations - Implementation Examples
* Journal subscription may be required for access.
Robinson 2010 - Robinson TN, Matheson DM, Kraemer HC, et al. A randomized controlled trial of culturally tailored dance and reducing screen time to prevent weight gain in low-income African American girls: Stanford GEMS. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 2010;164(11):995–1004.
Bloomquist 2012* - Bloomquist ML, August GJ, Lee SS, Piehler TF, Jensen M. Parent participation within community center or in-home outreach delivery models of the early risers conduct problems prevention program. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2012;21(3):368-83.
CDC-Community center - Alcaraz R. New community center to prevent youth violence. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), US Department of Health and Human Services (US DHHS).
BCYF - City of Boston. Boston centers for youth & families (B.C.Y.F).
Walnut Way - Walnut Way Conservation Corp.
JCC - Jewish Community Centers Association (JCC). Jewish community centers of North America.
YMCA - Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA). The Y.
Date Last Updated
- Scientifically Supported: Strategies with this rating are most likely to make a difference. These strategies have been tested in many robust studies with consistently positive results.
- Some Evidence: Strategies with this rating are likely to work, but further research is needed to confirm effects. These strategies have been tested more than once and results trend positive overall.
- Expert Opinion: Strategies with this rating are recommended by credible, impartial experts but have limited research documenting effects; further research, often with stronger designs, is needed to confirm effects.
- Insufficient Evidence: Strategies with this rating have limited research documenting effects. These strategies need further research, often with stronger designs, to confirm effects.
- Mixed Evidence: Strategies with this rating have been tested more than once and results are inconsistent or trend negative; further research is needed to confirm effects.
- Evidence of Ineffectiveness: Strategies with this rating are not good investments. These strategies have been tested in many robust studies with consistently negative and sometimes harmful results.