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Comprehensive clinic-based programs for pregnant & parenting teens

Evidence Rating

Scientifically Supported

Health Factors

Comprehensive clinic-based programs for pregnant or parenting teens address the complex needs of teenage mothers. Programs include health care and family planning services, and help participants with non-clinical needs through case management, counseling, social support, and connections to social services. Services are often provided by both medical teams and social workers. Programs are often geared toward preventing rapid repeat pregnancy, a second pregnancy within 12-24 months. Teenage childbearing poses economic, social, and medical risks to mothers and their infants; risks are magnified by repeat pregnancies during adolescence ().

Expected Beneficial Outcomes (Rated)

  • Reduced teenage pregnancy

  • Reduced rapid repeat pregnancies

Other Potential Beneficial Outcomes

  • Increased vaccination

  • Increased use of contraception

  • Increased condom use

Evidence of Effectiveness

There is strong evidence that comprehensive clinic-based programs that support pregnant and parenting teens reduce rapid repeat pregnancies among participants (, Akinbami 2001). Such programs also appear to promote clinic attendance and increase immunization completion for infants (Akinbami 2001).

Comprehensive programs based in large urban hospital and clinic facilities with multi-disciplinary teams have been shown to reduce repeat pregnancies among minority and low income adolescent mothers through 18 months post-partum (, Akinbami 2001). An assessment of the Philadelphia-based Health Care Program for First-Time Adolescent Mothers and their Infants, for example, indicates that black teenage mothers with Medicaid are less likely to experience a repeat pregnancy within 18 months than non-participating peers (SPTW) and an assessment of the Generations program in Washington DC indicates increased contraceptive and condom use for 12 months among black teenage mothers (). An evaluation of the Colorado Adolescent Maternity Program (CAMP) indicates that participants who choose to use long-acting reversible contraception (LARCs) appear least likely to become pregnant again ().

Integrated clinical and social services, combined mother and infant care, contraceptive education, and a multi-disciplinary youth-oriented approach appear to increase program effectiveness. Providing easy access to services and reaching young women at antenatal and postnatal consultations for their first pregnancy may also increase program effectiveness ().

Impact on Disparities

Likely to decrease disparities

Implementation Examples

Queens Hospital Center’s Comprehensive Adolescent Program for Teenage Mothers and Their Children, and the Health Care Program for First-Time Adolescent Mothers and their Infants are examples of programs that provide comprehensive services within the clinical context (National Campaign-EPD)

Implementation Resources

SPTW - Social Programs That Work (SPTW). Full list of programs.

Socio-PASHA - Sociometrics. Teen pregnancy (PASHA).

National Campaign-EPD - National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. Effective programs database (EPD): Interventions with evidence of success.

Citations - Evidence

* Journal subscription may be required for access.

SPTW - Social Programs That Work (SPTW). Full list of programs.

Akinbami 2001 - Akinbami LJ, Cheng TL, Kornfeld D. A review of teen-tot programs: Comprehensive clinical care for young parents and their children. Adolescence. 2001;36(142):381-93.

Corcoran 2007* - Corcoran J, Pillai VK. Effectiveness of secondary pregnancy prevention programs: A meta-analysis. Research on Social Work Practice. 2007;17(1):5–18.

Rowlands 2010* - Rowlands S. Social predictors of repeat adolescent pregnancy and focused strategies. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics Gynecology. 2010;24(5):605–16.

Lewin 2016* - Lewin A, Mitchell S, Beers L, Schmitz K, Boudreaux M. Improved contraceptive use among teen mothers in a patient-centered medical home. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2016;59(2):171-176.

Stevens-Simon 2001* - Stevens-Simon C, Kelly L, Kulick R. A village would be nice but... It takes a long-acting contraceptive to prevent repeat adolescent pregnancies. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2001;21(1):60-65.

Citations - Implementation Examples

* Journal subscription may be required for access.

National Campaign-EPD - National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. Effective programs database (EPD): Interventions with evidence of success.

Date Last Updated

May 1, 2017