Premature death (YPLL)

Premature Death is the years of potential life lost before age 75 (YPLL-75). Every death occurring before the age of 75 contributes to the total number of years of potential life lost. For example, a person dying at age 25 contributes 50 years of life lost, whereas a person who dies at age 65 contributes 10 years of life lost to a county's YPLL. The YPLL measure is presented as a rate per 100,000 population and is age-adjusted to the 2000 US population.

Measure Tabs

Reason for Ranking

Measuring premature mortality, rather than overall mortality, reflects the County Health Rankings’ intent to focus attention on deaths that could have been prevented. Measuring YPLL allows communities to target resources to high-risk areas and further investigate the causes of premature death.

Measurement Strengths and Limitations

YPLL is a widely used measure of the rate and distribution of premature mortality. The measure was introduced mainly because simple mortality rates do not fully address the issue of premature death, the impact of disease and death, and their cost to society.[1] Reducing YPLL is an important public health goal.

YPLL emphasizes deaths of younger persons, whereas statistics that include all mortality are dominated by deaths of the elderly.[2] For example, using YPLL-75, a death at age 55 counts twice as much as a death at age 65, and a death at age 35 counts eight times as much as a death at age 70. Including all mortality instead of YPLL in the County Health Rankings could draw attention to areas with higher mortality rates among the oldest segment of the population, where there may be little that can be done to change chronic health problems that have developed over many years.

YPLL is not without weaknesses. The measure can be difficult for lay people and public health practitioners to interpret. For example, the Florida Health Department’s Epidemiology Bureau investigated this issue and learned that county public health units often do not understand how to interpret YPLL.[3] Further, deaths that occur after the age limit are not accounted for at all. Because of this, YPLL can fail to completely capture the burden of chronic disease, especially if the age cut-off is set too low.[4]