Reason for Inclusion as Additional Measure
Although most overtly discriminatory policies and practices promoting segregation, such as separate schools or seating on public transportation or in restaurants based on race, have been illegal for decades, segregation caused by structural, institutional, and individual racism still exists in many parts of the country. The removal of discriminatory policies and practices has impacted acts of racism, but has had little effect on structural racism, like residential segregation, resulting in lingering structural inequalities. Although this area of research is gaining interest, structural forms of racism and their relationship to health inequities remain under-studied.
Residential segregation remains prevalent in many areas of the country and may influence both personal and community well-being. Residential segregation of blacks and whites is considered to be a fundamental cause of health disparities in the US and has been linked to poor health outcomes, including mortality, a wide variety of reproductive, infectious, and chronic diseases, and other adverse conditions.[1,2] Structural racism is also linked to poor-quality housing and disproportionate exposure to environmental toxins. Individuals living in segregated neighborhoods often experience increased violence, reduced educational and employment opportunities, limited access to quality healthcare and restrictions to upward mobility.[2,3]