Injuries are one of the leading causes of death; unintentional injuries were the third leading cause, and intentional injuries the 10th leading cause, of US mortality in 2016. The leading causes of death in 2016 among unintentional injuries, respectively, are: poisoning, motor vehicle traffic deaths, and falls. Among intentional injuries, the leading causes of death in 2016, respectively, are: firearm suicides, suffocation suicides, and firearm homicides. Unintentional injuries are a substantial contributor to premature death. In 2016, Unintentional injuries were the leading cause of death for all groups under age 45. Injuries account for 28% of all emergency department visits, and falls account for over one-third of those visits.
Injury Deaths is a Rate
Injury Deaths is the number of deaths from planned (e.g. homicide or suicide) and unplanned (e.g. motor vehicle deaths) injuries per 100,000 population. This measure includes injuries from all causes and intents. Rates measure the number of events (i.e., deaths, births, etc.) in a given time period (generally one or more years) divided by the average number of people at risk during that period. Rates help us compare data across counties with different population sizes.
Deaths are Counted in the County of Residence for the Person who Died, Rather than the County Where the Death Occurred
It is important to note that deaths are counted in the county of residence of the deceased. So, even in an injury death occurred across the state, the death is counted in the home county of the individual who died.
Some Data are Suppressed
A missing value is reported for counties with fewer than 10 injury deaths in the time frame.
This measure is being used to estimate the overall risk of injury in a county. Ideally, we would include injury hospitalizations and ER visits due to injuries, but these data are not available nationwide. The overall burden of injuries is not captured by the injury mortality rate; injuries that are not fatal have large costs due to emergency room visits and time off work.
The numerator is the number of injury deaths with an underlying cause of injury (ICD-10 codes *U01-*U03, V01-Y36, Y85-Y87, Y89) during the five-year period
The denominator is the aggregate annual population for the five-year period.
This measure can be used to track progress with some caveats. It is important to note that the estimate provided in the County Health Rankings is a 5-year average. However, in most counties, it is relatively simple to obtain single year estimates from the resource included below.
Years of Data Used
CDC WONDER mortality data
The Compressed Mortality File (CMF) is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years 1968-2017. Compressed Mortality data are updated annually. The number of deaths, crude death rates and age-adjusted death rates can be obtained by place of residence (total U.S., Census region, Census division, state, and county), age group, race (years 1968-1998: White, Black, and Other; years 1999-present: American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, Black or African American, and White), Hispanic origin (years 1968-1998: not available; years 1999-present: Hispanic or Latino, not Hispanic or Latino, Not Stated), gender, year of death, underlying cause of death (years 1968-1978: 4 digit ICD-8 codes and 69 cause-of-death recode; years 1979-1998: 4-digit ICD-9 codes and 72 cause-of-death recode; years 1999-present: 4-digit ICD-10 codes and 113 cause-of-death recode), and urbanization level of residence (years 1968-1998: not available; years 1999-present: per the 2006 or the 2013 NCHS Urban-Rural Classification Scheme for Counties).
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Deaths and mortality. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web Site. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causes-of-death.htm. Updated March 17,2017. Accessed February 2, 2019.
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2016. National Vital Statistics Reports. Vol 76, No 6. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr67/nvsr67_06.pdf
 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2015 Emergency Department Summary Tables. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhamcs/web_tables/2015_ed_web_tables.pdf
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